Artillery Glossary

Words in italics indicate a cross-reference.

ACCOUTREMENT: Also known as Accouterment. A generic term given to those items of equipment, other than clothing and weapons, issued to military personnel. Accoutrements differed between each branch of the armed services. Examples of artillery accoutrements include the waist belt, short sword, artillery saber, fuze pouch, pistol, holster, cap box, and gunner’s haversack.

AMMUNITION: Sometimes this name is given to cannon and mortars, as well as to the projectiles and explosive substances employed with them; but more usually ammunition is considered to apply to the latter – such as shot, shell gunpowder, cartridges, fuzes, wads, grenades. Muskets, swords, bayonets, and other small-arms are sometimes, but improperly, included under this term. The Royal Laboratory at Woolwich is the place where ammunition is chiefly prepared for the British army and navy. The cannon-balls may be cast at some of the great iron foundries in the North; the shells may be cast or forged in the shell-factory at Woolwich; the muskets may be made at Birmingham, and the rifles at Enfield; the bullets at the shot-factories; the gunpowder at Waltham Abbey – and so on; but the "making up" of the ammunition is mostly conducted at the establishment above mentioned. In the United States, ammunition is prepared at the various Arsenals and by numerous private Manufacturing Companies. Bags of serge, in enormous number are cut out and made, and filled to form the cartridges for large ordnance. Bags or tubes of paper are made and filled to constitute blank cartridges for small-arms; while the ball-cartridges are enclosed in thin copper cylinders. The tubes and combustibles for war-rockets and fuzes are also manufactured. The cartridges for small-arms (rifles, muskets, carbines, and pistols) are made in millions; since it is on those that the main offensive operations of an army depend. It has been calculated by the Woolwich authorities that a British army of 60,000 men, comprising a fair average of infantry, cavalry, artillery, and engineers, ought to be provided with no less than 18,000,000 ball-cartridges for small-arms, for six months’ operations. These would require 1000 ammunition-wagons and 3600 horses to convey them all at once. It is therefore deemed better that, under any such circumstances, there should be established entrepots for supplying the troops from time to time. The wagons constructed for this kind of service will carry 20,000 rounds of small-arm ammunition each; the cartridges are packed in boxes, and the wagons are drawn by four horses each. Several wagons are organized into an "equipment," under the charge of a detachment of artillery; and there are several such equipments for an army of the magnitude above mentioned – one for each division of infantry, a small portion for the cavalry, and the rest in reserve. It has been laid down that an army of 60,000 men ought to have 2,680,000 cartridges with them, besides those in reserve; and that the conveyance of such a quantity, with a few forges and stores, would require 150 ammunition-wagons, 830 men, and 704 horses. The equipment would return to the entrepot for a new supply when needed. In the Peninsular War, and at Waterloo, the English used two-horse carts, carrying about 10,000 rounds of small-arm ammunition each; but a superior kind of wagon has been since introduced. In the field, an infantry soldier usually carries about 60 rounds, put in compartments in his pouch. When the word ammunition is used in connection with artillery matters, the "fixed" ammunition comprises the loaded shells, cartridges, and carcasses; whereas the "unfixed" are the unfilled case-shot, grape-shot, and shell. Curing peace, the Woolwich laboratory serves out little less than 1,000,000 pounds. Of gunpowder annually, in ammunition for the army and navy, for the purposes of exercising, saluting, etc. The chief kinds of ammunition will be found briefly described under their proper headings. See Ammunition-boxes, Breaking up Ammunition, Cartridge, Center-fire Metallic-case Cartridge, Field and Mountain Ammunition, Fixed Ammunition, Metallic Ammunition for Small-arms, Paper Ammunition for Small-arms, Preservation of Ammunition and Fireworks, Siege and Garrison Ammunition, Stand of Ammunition, and Strapped Ammunition.

AMMUNITION-BOXES: Packing-boxes for field ammunition are made of well-seasoned stuff (generally white pine), 1.25 inch thick, dovetailed with the tenon on the ends. The top of the box is fastened with six 2-inch screws; the box has two handles of 1 inch rope, attached to brackets at the ends. The boxes are painted on the outside different colors to indicate the contents of the box. Those containing shot are painted olive; shells, black; spherical case-shot, red; and canisters, a light drab. The kind of ammunition is marked on each end in large white letters. The place and date of fabrication are marked on the inside of the cover. The boxes are packed as follows:

For Smooth-Bore Guns. – Shot, spherical case and canisters, fixed. – Laid in two tiers across the box, the shot or canisters alternating with the cartridges at each side. The shot or canisters of the upper tier rest on those of the lower and not on the cartridges. Canisters are packed in the same manner, omitting the strips of wood in the bottom of the box.

For 12-pounder Mountain-Howitzer. – Shells and case-shot, fixed. – Placed upright, the balls down, resting on strips of wood as for the other howitzer. Canisters are packed in the same manner, resting on the bottom of the box.

For Rifled Funs. – Shells and case-shot. – Placed upright, the balls down, resting on strips of wood as for the howitzer. The iron part of the balls rest against strips of wood 4 inches wide and .25 inch thick, nailed to the side and ends of the box at the bottom, and similar strips placed between the rows of the balls to prevent the soft metal cups from bearing against the box or against each other and being bruised; the cartridges are placed on top of the projectiles. Canisters are packed in the same manner as the case-shot, omitting the strips of wood on the bottom of the box.

In all the boxes the small stores are placed in the vacant spaces on top of the ammunition. A layer of tow is placed in the bottom of each box, and the whole contents are well packed in tow, filling the box so as to be pressed down by the cover. About three pounds of tow are required for a box. See Ammunition and Madigan Ammunition-box.

AMMUNITION CHEST(S): Wooden chests used to store ammunition for use in the field. When being transported, the chests were attached to the artillery limber and served as a seat for the cannoneers. Large metal handles on each end served to lift the chest and as a hand support for the cannoneers seated on the chest. The weight of an empty chest was 185 pounds, a fully-loaded chest could weigh as much as 560 pounds depending upon the type of ammunition. Limbers could hold one chest and caissons usually held two. Chests are placed on field-limbers and caissons for the transportation and safe-keeping of the ammunition. The limber has one and the caisson has three such chests, which will seat twelve cannoneers if necessary. The interior compartments of the ammunition-chests vary according to the nature of the ammunition with which they are loaded.

AMMUNITION CRATE: Also known as a packing box. Crates were made of wood with rope handles and were stenciled on the outside to indicate the contents. Those containing shot were painted olive; shell, black; spherical case-shot, red; and canister, a light drab. The kind of ammunition was marked on each end in large white letters. The place and date of manufacture were marked on the inside of the cover.

AMMUNITION-WAGON: A carriage employed for the transportation of ammunition. The points essential in the general construction of field-artillery carriages apply equally in that of the ammunition-wagon, so far as the traveling conditions are concerned. It need only be observed that the general form of a limber-carriage can be most effectively retained in the ammunition-wagon by substituting a perch for the trail of the gun-carriage, and furnishing it with an eye in front for an attachment to the limber-hook. The arrangement of the ammunition-boxes on the platform of the body must be such as to insure the center of gravity of the entire load falling between the wheels and limber-hook, the pressure on the latter being regulated with particular reference to stability and ease of draught.

ANGLE OF DEFENSE: The intersection of two fortified lines - a salient angle pointed to the front, while a re-entering angle pointed to the rear.

ANGLES OF FIRE: The placement of a battery, or battery assignment, dictated the angle of fire used to achieve objectives. Angles of fire included:

Direct - battery of guns placed parallel to the face of the enemy’s works, or their line of troops, so that the projectiles struck it perpendicular.

Enfilade - battery of guns placed at right angles to the enemy’s works, or their line of troops, so that the projectiles fell in a parallel line to the works, striking a number of targets from one end of the line to the other.

Oblique - battery placed to form an angle with the front of the object to be struck.

Plunging - battery placed to fire projectiles from a higher position above the enemy’s works.

Reverse - battery placed to fire projectiles to strike the interior slope of the parapet at an angle greater than 30 degrees.

Ricochet - batteries fired at a slight elevation so that the shot bounced destructively from target to target along the enemy’s works or lines of troops.

Slant - battery placed so the shot struck the interior slope of the parapet, forming with it a horizontal angle, not greater than 30 degrees.

Vertical - batteries placed to fire a projectile at such an angle that it described a lofty curve through the air before it fell, such as the fire from a mortar battery.

ANVIL CAP: A flat piece of metal contained in a percussion fuze. Its purpose was to serve as a hard surface for the nipple to strike, thereby causing the spark necessary to detonate the powder in the chamber of the projectile.

APRON: A piece of sheet lead used to cover the vent of a cannon to protect against the elements. This was later replaced by the vent cover.

ARMOR-PIERCING PROJECTILES: Projectiles intended for practice at objects composed of wood, masonry, or earth are made of cast-iron; but since the introduction of iron for the defense of ships for fortifications, a material possessing greater hardness than ordinary cast-iron is required to overcome the resistance opposed by thick wrought-iron plates. Both elongated and spherical projectiles for use against armor should be of the hardest and toughest material possible. The power of a projectile to stand up to its work and deliver its full blow on the target depends on the shape as much as on the quality of the metal of which it is composed.

The resistance of the plate, neglecting friction, acts as a normal to each point of the surface of contact of a spherical projectile; thus, in Fig. 1 it will be seen that the portion of such a projectile included between A and B, which we may term the zone of compression, is subject to a crushing pressure towards the center, O, but it may be said to be under no tensile strain. While the posterior portion of the projectile is suddenly checked by it in the form of a wedge, when a portion of the work stored up inn it (the amount depending on the tensile strength of the material of the projectile) is impressed on the target through the front portion, AOB, while the remainder is carried off unprofitably in the fragments into which the posterior portion breaks. On examining the projectile after impact, a part very nearly corresponding to AOB in form will be found intact (Fig. 1) with the fractured surface scored and polished, while the remainder will be disperses in small fragments. We know that any casting fractures most easily in the direction of a normal to its surface, the crystals settling themselves so as to form lines on this direction. Theoretically, the portion represented by Fig. 1 ought to be smaller as the penetration is less – except in the case of the entire blow being too small to overcome the tensile strength of the metal in the manner described: when the projectile would only split irregularly, or, in an extreme case, remain entire. In all instances obviously a great amount of the work, stored up in the projectile is wasted; not that actually employed in breaking it, for such work is clearly the result of the reaction from the target, but whatever power remains stored up in the fragments after they sever themselves from the mass of the projectile. Since it is impossible to predict what part of a spherical projectile fired from a smooth-bore gun will come in contact with the target on impact, it is necessary that the material should be such as will offer the greatest union of hardness, crushing strength, and tenacity; therefore steel has been resorted to in some instances, and may be regarded as the culminating point of development of the smooth-bore projectiles.

The flat-ended form of elongated projectiles possesses a peculiar advantage as regards the projectile, and another as concerns the plate. As to the projectiles, it may be seen (Fig. 2) that in direct impact the whole of resistance of the target acts in lines parallel to the projectile’s axis, which direction is the most favorable to the projectile retaining its mass and delivering its full blow on the target; and, again, if the target is to be punched by actual shearing, the flat head is the form best adapted to effect it. The flat head would probably be best in the case of direct firing against plates composed of hard iron, for it is easy to conceive of a hard material offering very great resistance to the forcing open of a pointed head, which might be punched by the clean shearing of a flat-headed projectile. The power given by rotation of keeping the same portion of a projectile presented to the front is of peculiar value in punching armor-plates; it enables the head of a projectile to be made of any desired form, while the power of reducing the caliber of a projectile in proportion to its weight, which is perhaps the principal advantage obtained by rifling, is also most important here, the depth of penetration being in inverse proportion to the circumference. In shells, however, this stability of the axis of rotation tells more fully, for it enables every part of the projectile to be made of such proportions as will give the maximum power at the moment of impact. The walls of an elongated shell being chiefly subjected to a longitudinal strain, an interior hollow may be made without entailing the great weakness existing in spherical shells as compared with solid shot. Hence it follows that while smooth-bore shells have seldom or never been fired at armor, rifled shells have proved very successful.

There are two causes which contribute to give shells peculiar power against iron plates. The first is that it is not necessary to weaken the head of a shell by making a fuze-hole in it; because no fuze is required, the heat generated on the impact of a projectile against the armor being sufficient to fire the bursting-charge. To such an extent is light as well as heat generated, that on firing oat a target after dark a pale flash is seen to follow the impact. The second cause that operates to favor the action of shells is the fact that when the shell has penetrated to a depth of even a few inches before rupture occurs, the sides are supported by the armor around them, and the explosion, being confined at the sides, acts to the front with greatly increased force.

In a conical head the normal pressures throughout form a zone of compression acting as a wedge towards the body of the projectile, whose angle is the supplement of that of the cone of the head. This is better than that formed in the spherical head, because the angle is less acute, and because the apex of the wedge, instead of being a fixed point throughout (the center of the sphere), moves along the axis of the projectile as it enters deeper and deeper into the target. In the ogival head (Fig. 3) it will easily be seen how much superior is the action. In this the wedge is at the commencement slightly acute, but then the resistance acts on a small surface and is comparatively small, and the angle increases, till, at the junction of head and body, it becomes 180 degrees, or a straight line, so that we then have the body of the projectile in much the same condition as the flat headed bolt driving before it an ogival wedge, which opens the armor by wedging rather than by clipping or punching.

It is possible, no doubt, to conceive of a material that might be sheared by the flat projectile more easily than opened by the ogival; but it would be to contradict the results of experience to say that plate-iron was such a substance; and as the softer and more plastic natures of plate-iron have been found to hold their bolts the best, and stand the longest, and so have been universally adopted, the ogival has become obviously the correct form of the head.

The effect of hardening projectiles is probably much greater than is generally supposed; that is, the amount of work gained is much greater than the increase of strength of the projectile. It is well known that a very small force may under certain circumstances determine the performance or non-performance of a very large amount of work. In like manner a very slight addition to the rigidity of a projectile, by hardening or otherwise, may determine whether a very large amount of work shall be wasted upon the projectile or expended upon the plate. Another means of increasing the work done upon the armor plate in comparison with that done upon the projectile is by increasing the velocity of the latter. That is, a projectile moving at a low velocity may be smashed up or flattened against the plate, while the same projectile fired at a higher velocity may go through the same plate almost uninjured. On this principle a lead shot may be fired through an iron plate, or a tallow candle through a pine board.

Late trials have shown a superiority of steel projectiles over those made of chilled cast-iron; and although the former are somewhat more expensive than the latter, on the principle that the best is at the same time the cheapest, it would be misplaced economy to leave any means unavailed of to increase the penetrating power of projectiles. The quality of chilled projectiles, from the nature of their manufacture, is necessarily unreliable; whereas this is not the case with hammered cast-steel, or at least not to the same extent by far, even when large masses are produced; and the difficulty of manufacture increases with the caliber. The most essential difference in the behavior of steel and chilled projectiles on striking the target consists in the reaction on the projectile showing itself in the latter by breaking up, while the former are only set up. As the breaking up of the chilled shells may take place before the bursting-charge comes into operation, whereby the rending effect is considerably prejudiced, this material appears far less adapted for shells than steel. The superiority of steel in this respect is still further increased by the fact that the steel shell can have thinner walls, consequently a larger chamber, and can thus hold a larger bursting-charge than the chilled metal. – See Armor-plates and Projectiles.

ARMORER: One who was charged with the manufacture, repair, or preservation of weapons.

ARMORY: A manufactory or storage facility for arms and ordnance.

ARMSTRONG GUNS: The built-up gun construction of Great Britain, the germ of which is to be found in the coiled welded system of Sir William Armstrong, introduced to the artillery world in 1852 in the form of a breech-loading cannon, but passing from that date through numerous and important changes, especially the thickening of the coils and the introduction of tempered steel lining tubes, is the one which is still adhered to, in its general principles, by the ordnance constructors, both public and private, of the English nation. The failure of the Armstrong breech-loading guns, and the subsequent introduction of muzzle-loading cannon in lieu thereof, in 1869, did not change, however, one of the essential features of the present construction – the employment of coiled welded wrought-iron sections – but led to the modified form of their production known as the Fraser system, and the introduction of comparatively thin oil-tempered steel tubes for the interior lining. The most prominent guns produced under this new system, which first attracted universal attention on account of their great comparative power, were the 25-, 35-, and 38-ton guns; but these, as is well known, were quickly superseded by the 16-inch 80-ton gun, and it, in its turn, by the largest of, as yet constructed ordnance – the 100-ton guns of the Armstrong model, shown in section in the drawing.

The theoretical consideration that the ratio of the capacities for work of two tubes is only approximatively directly as their thicknesses, or, generally speaking, that a thin tube has more relative strength than a thick one to withstand interior bursting strains, is the essence of the theory of the built-up guns of the English model, and it is practically carried out in their present constructions; the inference to be drawn being that a homogeneous structure, having no subdivisions in its walls, does not bring into play the full strength of the entire thickness while under stress; and that guns constructed homogeneously, however thick, cannot long sustain pressures exceeding the tensile strength of the metal employed. Sanctioning the soundness of the theory that only by built-up constructions the most powerful and yet reliable guns can be produced, the next point for consideration is the arrangement of the different metals entering into the fabrication, so that the stronger metal (steel) shall form the walls surrounding the bore, and that the superimposed layers of wrought-iron shall be so placed on that each part, from the bore to the exterior, shall be, as far as possible, under strain in accordance with its capacity for work, considered in reference to tangential strains. The English authorities state: "This object we may obtain by employing a single metal for the several portions, and so disposing the various layers over each other that the inner layers or tubes are compressed by those outside them, while the exterior tubes are at the same time put into a state of tension, the inner layers being thus strengthened at the expense of the outer portions of the metal. In this case we obtain the whole strength of all the layers except a part of that of the outer and unsupported ring. It must not, however, be for one moment supposed that this theoretical perfection is ever reached; the nearest approach to it is far away from perfect, and theoretical advantages have to give way largely to practical considerations of manufacture. Again, we may arrive at a similar result by employing metals varying in elasticity or in tenacity for the several parts, those possessing the largest amount of strength constituting, of course, the inner portions, so that where the greatest stress is felt it will be borne by the stronger material. These two methods are sometimes called respectively those of initial tension and of varying elasticities. They may be, and frequently are, both employed in the manufacture of a gun, as in the case of the so-called Woolwich guns."

The longitudinal strain is provided for by the thick solid-bottomed steel tube, and the breech-plug screwed into the wrought-iron coiled tube, superimposing the inner tube, brings into play (in the latest model) the strength resulting from locking the tube and other parts together. The construction, briefly, we know is a steel tube, over which is shrunk coiled wrought-iron tubes; the majority of the larger calibers, except the 100-ton gun, having only two layers of wrought-iron tubes; the latter more perfectly brings into use the principles of initial tension, by having the wrought-iron casing subdivided into three instead of two parts. On theoretical considerations, the large number of coils employed in the original Armstrong construction enabled the designers more perfectly to carry out the idea of initial tensions by shrinkage; yet its expensiveness led to its abandonment, and the substitution of large and, in consequence, fewer coils; thus more imperfectly applying the principles which it was sought to follow as the true ones in making guns. Although economy, the object of the change, was attained, yet it is doubtful, from the large masses employed if the result is more than a very rough approximation to the asserted theories of construction. The broad differences in the physical properties of wrought-iron and steel, i.e., differences in elasticity and ductility and tensile strength, render problematical the perfect co-operation of the two metals, under repeated strains such as obtain in the use of guns; and it would seem that the more elastic and less extensible steel, in imparting its stress to the adjacent iron repeatedly, would enlarge the latter by degrees, so that eventually it would form but an imperfect support to the former, which would in that case more or less bear, in the system, the burden of the work in resisting tangential strains; and that its rupture under severer treatment would be finally the result. The manner in which this system in manufacture is practically carried out needs only, in view of the full description printed for public use, be but generally stated.

The tubes are generally of Firth’s production, and are furnished under contract to the Woolwich Arsenal. They are solid ingots which are first roughly bored and turned, and then tempered in rape-oil. The jackets or coils, shrunk over the steel tube, in the heaviest natures, range in number according to the length of the gun. Generally two layers of coils cover the breech part, all assembled in accordance with the principle of initial tension. The details of construction are fully given in English text-books, and need not be alluded to here. The 100-ton gun – the latest English muzzle-loading construction – generally speaking, differs from inferior calibers by the large number of shoulders provided on the steel tube, the latter being made in two parts, united together by a wrought-iron exterior band, and in the greater number of subdivisions of the jackets, or rather that the bands are relatively narrower than on other fabrications; besides, three layers obtain at breech, rendering it a more thoroughly built-up gun construction. Four of these guns – made by Sir William Armstrong & Co., Newcastle-on-Tyne – now form part of the armament of Great Britain and her Colonies, and now await their emplacements to be prepared for them at Malta and Gibraltar. We are informed that "guns have already been designed and could be readily made at Woolwich which would surpass the latter 100-ton gun’ in power to as great an extent as they themselves surpass the 38-ton service-gun."

The English Government establishment, however, has not produced any muzzle-loading constructions higher than the 80-ton gun, a gun, from the large facilities and perfected machinery of Woolwich, giving us the best exhibit of the Armstrong-Fraser system. That no recent attempts, however, to introduce higher natures of muzzle-loading guns have been made is fully justified by the important developments of Krupp’s experiments at Meppen in August, 1879, and by the disasters occurring on board the English iron-clad the "Thunderer" in the same year; the first calling attention to the presumed superiority of breech-loading guns – since accorded – in affording less exposure to men; reduced size of embrasures, securing greater rapidity of fire; increased length of bore, and hence greater power; and also affording greater facilities for bore examinations, and permitting an ease in loading not afforded in long-bored muzzle-loading guns; and the latter exhibiting the dangers arising from the possibilities of double charging, and the cumbersomeness and complica6tions of loading devices necessary for the use of muzzle-loading guns, more especially in the naval service, where economy of space is a matter of vital importance. Although the developments at Meppen and the Thunderer misfortune only occurred a few years ago, yet such was the moral effect that immediate steps were instituted to develop breech-loading guns of 12-inch caliber and lower natures.

The principal dimensions of the Woolwich and Elswick guns are as follows:

 

Woolwich.

Elswick.

Total length of gun without carrier in.

333

331

Caliber…………………………….."

12

12

Bore:
In calibers……………………….."

26

26

In inches…………………………."

312

312.2

Total capacity…………………cubic"

39,057

38,784
Chamber:    
Diameter…………………………."

15.5

14.3

Length……………………………."

58.35

87.43

Capacity………………………….."

10,120

13,178
Diameter in rear opening…………"

………………………..

12.4

Rifling:    
Twist in calibers………………………    
Length…………………………….in.

……………………….

220.36

Number of grooves……………….."

48

50

These constructions (of the same caliber, 12 inch) differ very little from each other in their main features, such as modes of construction, principal dimensions, breech fermeture, and length of bore, the only important variations being in the lengths and diameters of chambers and their capacities; the Elswick gun having a less diameter and a greater length for this part of the bore, and also a greater capacity than the Woolwich pattern; this latter feature increasing the air-space in the chamber of the former over the latter when equal charges are used. It also, for the same diameter of the exterior, gives a stronger gun (both using the same metals) in its walls. A tabulated statement of these points of difference may be here inserted:

Powder-chamber.

Powder-chamber.

Elswick: R. G. F.:
Length……………in. 86.25 Length……………in. 58.35
Diameter………… in. 14.3 Diameter…….……." 15.5
Capacity…....cubic in. 13,178 Capacity…… cubic " 10,120

The Woolwich authorities have established 17.1 tons per square inch as the service-limit for pressure, yet Armstrong for his constructions reaches 25 tons per square inch, and in his 10.15-inch wire gun a pressure of 34 tons per square inch has obtained. Cast-iron alone, or cast-iron in combination with wrought, or with wrought-iron and steel, or with steel alone, in guns for, say, one caliber and a half thickness of walls, cannot endure the chambering and in consequence the increased charges, which constructions made of steel alone, or steel in combination with wrought-iron, can sustain; and hence any plain using the inferior metal looking to a rivalry with the superior modern constructions which ignore the use of cast-iron would be a risk too hazardous to assume, and when the pressures reach, in guns using cast-iron, a limit of, say, not exceeding 35,000 to 37,000 pounds for a gun one and one half calibers thick, the service-limit should be regarded as reached, and the charges and chambering should be so regulated as to keep within these limits, which should be established as the limits of safety.

In steel guns a little less than one caliber is regarded as sufficient thickness of walls; and a caliber and one quarter, about, is used over the chambers of the 43-ton guns composed of steel and wrought-iron. In steel-tubed guns, surrounded by a wire and a part steel and part wrought-iron jacket, the thickness of walls given over the chamber is but eighty-five one-hundredths of a caliber. These figures illustrate the vast difference in the eyes of European gun constructors between the use of pure steel and the combination of steel and wrought-iron, and more especially in any construction in which cast-iron plays a prominent part. It would seem, therefore, independent of the recognized fact of the inferiority of cast-iron in strength, that the important element of weight would become largely a factor for consideration in judging of constructions using this metal, either alone or in combination with others. In fact as much power can be secured from a 43-ton (12-inch) gun (steel and iron) as from a 12-inch 55- to 60-ton gun (built-up) of cast-iron and steel.

In a 44-ton (13-inch) wire gun we have the remarkable exhibit of a yield of 27,460 foot-tons muzzle-energy, or say, 637 foot-tons per ton of metal. The cat-iron and steel constructions (60 tons) alluded to above only give 359 foot-tons per ton of metal. The 10.15-inch wire gun recently constructed has been tested, and the distinction between it and the last-mentioned gun is more pronounced in favor of wire than the 13-inch; the resulting muzzle-energy giving 760 foot-tons per ton of metal. The pressures are relatively higher in attaining these results, yet the strength of the combination is believed to warrant a large increase over the ordinary standard pressure adopted for the guns of the English service. Admitting that about 37,600 foot-tons muzzle-energy can be attained with a 13-inch of a weight of, say 44 tons (wire), we find that it takes 50 per centum more weight (60 tons) in a gun (12-inch) using cast-iron to attain a much less muzzle-energy corresponding to the difference in calibers. The force of this testimony regarding weight is evidently, as far as it goes, against the use of cast-iron; and when we consider the question of its employment, pure and simple, this objection of increased weight necessary in the structure becomes a subject of the first importance, and one alone which at the threshold of the consideration of problem of gun construction should lead us to doubt if it should be employed at all if we desire to attain a high standard in power and endurance in our future heavy ordnance armaments.

Independent of strength and increased weight, cast-iron guns of heavy natures require a cumbersome and expensive plant, consisting of deep pits, large furnaces, powerful cranes, and heavy and powerful lathes, etc., whereas in the built-up steel, and steel and wrought-iron systems, also wire guns, the numerous parts which go to make up the whole can, from their comparative lightness, be handled in the different operations of construction with far greater ease and less expense than obtain in the production of homogeneous masses consisting of but one piece, as found in systems where cast-iron enters either solely or largely into the fabrications. On the score of economy, it may be doubtful if any material advantage results in the use of cast-iron. English models cost about 14 cents per pound. To gain equal powers we would require, according to the ideas of constructors in cast-iron, at least a 60-ton gun to perform the same work as a 43-ton gun of steel and wrought-iron. If we estimate cast-iron at 12 cents per pound, we have a cost of $16,128 for a pure cast-iron gun of 60 tons; and admitting 14 cents per pound for wrought-iron and steel, we have a cost for a 43-ton gun of $13,484.80. If a net profit of 25 per centum for manufacturers is added to this latter figure, which is government cost, we have even then a less expensive construction than pure cast-iron in that country. See Built-up Guns and Ordnance.

ARMSTRONG PROJECTILE: But one kind of projectile is used in the Armstrong breech-loading guns for the field-service, and this is so constructed as to act as a shot, shell, or case-shot, at pleasure. It consists, as shown in Fig. 1, of a very thin cast-iron shell, snugly inclosing forty-two segment-shaped pieces of cast-iron (B B), built up so as to form a cylindrical cavity in the center (D), which contains the bursting-charge and the concussion-fuze. The exterior of the shell is thinly coated with lead (C C), which is applied by placing the shell in a mold and pouring it in a melted state. The lead is also allowed to percolate among the segments, so as to fill up the interstices, the central cavity being kept open by the insertion of a steel core. In this state the projectile is so compact that it may be fired without injury; while its resistance to a bursting-charge is so small that less than one ounce of powder is required to burst it. When the projectile is to be fired as a shot, it requires no preparation; but the expediency of using it otherwise than as a shell is doubted.

To make it available as a shell, the bursting-tube, the concussion- and time-fuzes, are all to be inserted; the bursting-tube entering first, and the time-fuze being screwed in at the apex. If the time-fuze be correctly adjusted, the shell will burst when it reaches within a few yards of the object; or, failing in this it will burst by the concussion-fuze when it strikes the object or grazes the ground near it. If it be required to act as a canister-shot upon an enemy close to the gun, the regulation of the time-fuze must be turned to the zero of the scale, and then the shell will burst on leaving the gun. The explosion of one of these shells in a closed chamber, where the pieces could be collected, resulted in the following number of fragments; 106 pieces of cast-iron, 90 pieces of lead, and 12 pieces of fuze, etc. – making in all 217 pieces.

The Armstrong projectiles for the muzzle-loading guns have rows of brass or copper studs projecting from their sides to fit into the grooves of the gun, which are constructed on the shunt principle. Fig. 2 represents a 10-inch Armstrong Shell for penetrating armor-plates; It is made of wrought-iron or low steel, with very thick sides. There is no fuze, the explosion resulting from the heat generated by the impact, and the crushing in of the thin cap which closes the mouth of the powder-chamber. The sides and bottom of the shell being thick enough to resist crushing by the impact, and also to resist the explosive force of the bursting-charge, its effect will, after penetration, be expended on the backing of the armor, or the decks which the armor is intended to screen. Such projectiles are called "blind shells." See Projectiles.

ARSENAL: A storage facility for ordnance and ordnance stores. Some arsenals were also used for the construction and repair of ordnance equipment.

ARTIFICER: Military workmen. Each artillery company was allowed two artificers.

ARTILLERIST: A soldier serving with the artillery.

ARTILLERY: 1) Generic term used to describe the heavy weapons of every description with the implements and materials necessary for their use. The weapons are broken down into four categories: Guns, Howitzers, Columbiads, and Mortars. These pieces are further categorized by their specific use: Seacoast, Siege and Garrison, and Field Artillery. Finally, artillery weapons may be denoted by type of bore (smooth or rifled). 2) Specific branch of the Confederate and Union armies and navies charged with the deployment, service, and maintenance of artillery. 3) Sub-units of the artillery branch, usually designated by state name, regiment number and/or name, battery letter, corps number, and specific army membership. Many of the sub units were also known by the name of their commanding officer or other non-standard references.

ARTILLERY CREW: Military personnel responsible for the maintenance, transportation, and operation of the various artillery pieces and the equipment and horses needed to properly support the battery. Each crew member working the cannon was assigned a number which dictated what his specific responsibility was during each phase of the operation of the guns. Support personnel included horse drivers, horse holders, and specialized functions such as blacksmiths. A Union army battery, at full strength, exceeded 100 officers and men.

ARTILLERY HORSES: See Horse Team.

ARTILLERY PARK: 1) A space occupied by animals, wagons, and artillery contiguous to a military camp. 2) A collection of one or more batteries.

ARTILLERY RESERVE: Designated batteries which were to remain limbered and hitched, ready to move quickly into position during battle. Their purpose was to replace disabled batteries or to move rapidly where the enemy was massing for an attack. The Army of the Potomac had a designated artillery reserve which practiced such maneuvers.

ARTILLERY SABER: A large, thick, curved blade having no basket guard often referred to as a saber.

ARTILLERY TRAIN: A military organization consisting of varying numbers of artillery weapons proportioned according to caliber and type. Siege weapons (guns, howitzers, mortars) were usually organized in trains of 100 pieces along with the required carriages, horses, ammunition, and gunpowder. Field trains were considerably smaller, usually consisting of three field weapons (guns and howitzers) per 1,000 infantry.

ASTRAGAL: Small convex molding used in the ornamental work of the cannon tube. It was usually connected with a fillet or flat molding.

AUGET: A groove on a traversing gun carriage which directed the recoil of a gun.

AXIS OF THE PIECE: The central line of the bore of an artillery tube.

BALLISTIC PENDULUM: An instrument which determined the force and velocity of a projectile during its flight.

BAR SHOT: Two hemispheres, or round shots, connected together by a short iron bar. When this shot was fired it began a rotation which, in theory, was supposed to cut the masts and rigging of naval vessels.

BARBETTE: Artillery elevated to fire above the crest of a parapet rather than through an embrasure. This was done by either raising the earth behind the parapet, or by placing the weapon on a high carriage. The advantage of barbette firing was a much wider range of fire unrestricted by the small embrasure.

BARBETTE CARRIAGE: An immovable wrought iron or heavy wooden carriage used for the mounting of garrison and seacoast artillery. Two varieties of the barbette carriage were the front-pintle (for the 8- and 10-inch Columbiad, and the 24-, 32-, and 42-pounder gun) and the center-pintle carriages (for the 8- and 10-inch Columbiad).

BARREL: See Tube.

BASE LINE: A line traced around the gun in the rear of the vent.

BASE RING: A projecting band of metal which adjoined the base of the breech, and was connected to the body of the gun by a concave molding.

BATTERIES: A battery consists of two or more pieces of artillery in the field. The term battery also implies the emplacement of ordnance destined to act offensively or defensively. It also refers to the company charged with a certain number of pieces of ordnance. The ordnance constitutes the battery. Men serve the battery. Horses drag it, and epaulments may shelter it. A battery may be with or without embrasures. In the latter case it is en barbette, and the height of the genouillere varies according to the description of the gun-carriage used. The ordnance constituting the battery requires substantial bearings either of solid ground for field-pieces, or of timber, plank, or masonry platforms, for heavy artillery. Batteries are sometimes designated as follows: Barbette battery, one without embrasures, in which the guns are raised to fire over the parapet; Ambulant battery, heavy guns mounted on traveling carriages, and moved as occasion may require, either to positions on a coast, or in besieged places; Covered battery, intended for a vertical fire, and concealed from the enemy; Breaking battery; Joint batteries, uniting their fire against any object; Counter battery, one battery opposed against another; Coast battery; Direct battery; Cross batteries, forming a cross fire on an object; Oblique battery, forming an angle of 20 degrees or more with the object against which it is directed, contradistinguished from direct battery; Raised battery, one whose terre-plein is elevated considerably above the ground; Sunken-battery, where the sole of the embrasures is on a level with the ground; and the platforms are consequently sunk below it; Enflading battery, when the shot or shell sweeps the whole length of a line of troops or part of a work; Horizontal battery, when the terre-plein is that of the natural level of the ground, consequently the parapet alone is raised and the ditch sunk; Open battery, without epaulment or other covering, wholly exposed; Indented battery, or battery a cremaillere, battery constructed with salient and re-entering angles for obtaining an oblique as well as a direct fire, and to afford shelter from the enfilade fire of the enemy; Reverse battery, that which fires upon the rear of a work or line of troops; Ricochet battery, whose projectiles, being fired at low angles, graze and bound without being buried; Masked battery, artificially concealed until required to open upon the enemy.

Field-batteries, in sieges, are usually of two kinds, viz., Elevated batteries and Sunken batteries, and they are placed either in front of the parallel, in the parallel itself, or in rear of it. In an elevated battery, the platforms for the guns or mortars to stand upon are laid on the natural level of the ground, and the whole of the covering mass, or parapet, is raised above that level, the earth for forming it being obtained from a ditch in front. In a sunken battery, the whole interior of the battery is excavated about three feet deep, and the platforms laid on the bottom, the earth is thrown to the front, and the parapet is formed out of it. Great care must be taken that no rise in the ground before the battery obscures the view from the soles of the embrasures; for this purpose, the officer laying out the battery should lie down and look along the ground, in order to be sure that his guns can range freely from their embrasures before he fixes his details for construction. When guns are fired with an elevation, when the soil is sandy or gravelly, when the weather is dry, or the ground elevated, this construction is approved. The depth of the excavation for the interior must depend on the height of the carriages upon which the guns are mounted: it should be deeper in rear than in front, that it may be drained. The interior slopes of these batteries, and the cheeks of the embrasures must be supported by field-revetments of gabions, fascines, sand-bags, casks, or sods. In batteries exposed to a heavy fire, especially of shells, it is necessary to provide as much cover as possible for the men serving in them; for this purpose, traverses are usually placed between every two guns; and as these masses serve to protect the men from the splinters of the bursting shells, they are generally called splinter-proof traverses. There is nearly twice as much work in the elevated as in the sunken battery.

A battery for four siege-pieces is represented in the drawing. In this construction, the parapet (A) is made of earth taken from the front, thus forming a ditch (C).

To protect the pieces (XXXX) from flank fire, the parapet is continued around on one or both ends, forming epaulments (BB). The guns are in pairs, separated by a traverse (D). The interval between the axes of the embrasures of each pair is 16 feet for guns on traveling carriages, and from 18 to 22 feet for sea-coast guns. Between the two middle pieces this distance is increased by the thickness of the traverse, generally about 15 feet. The entire length of the interior crest of the parapet, from a to b, will therefore be 79 feet. This and other given dimensions are not absolute, but indicate the method of obtaining the data necessary for laying out any battery. The length of the flank epaulments will depend upon the direction of the enemy’s fire; in all cases it must be sufficiently great to give full protection to the whole interior from an enfilading fire; generally it would be about 24 feet. The thickness of the parapet and epaulments will depend upon the power of the artillery they are expected to resist.

Batteries for even the heaviest pieces may be constructed on marshy ground by laying a grillage of timber over the surface and building up the parapet on it with sand-bags. To prevent the parapet from settling over towards the front, the grillage should extend several feet beyond it in that direction. In order that the platform of the piece may not be moved from its true horizontal position by any settling of the parapet, the space to be occupied by it is enclosed with strong sheeting piles. In this enclosed space several layers of fascines are laid, crossing each other at right angles; on these earth or sand is rammed, and the platform laid in the usual manner. If sand is used on top of the fascines, two or three thicknesses of paulins should be spread over them to hold the sand. Magazines in such localities must, of necessity, be entirely above ground, and supported on grillage in the same manner. See Embrasure.

BATTERING CHARGES: In the service of artillery there are two classes of cartridges, battering and full. The first is used with Palliser projectiles, and only under certain circumstances with common shell; the second is the ordinary charge used with common, double, shrapnel shell, and case-shot. The powder used would be pebble for all battering charges, and for full charges of 40 pounds and upwards.

The reason why pebble-powder is now used with all large guns instead of ordinary powder is explained as follows: That the pressure on the gun is much less, and the velocity greater, with the former than the latter. This increased velocity is due to the lower pressure of the powder, which is kept up longer in the bore than with quicker-burning powder, the velocity depending upon the pressure and the space over which it is exerted.

BATTERING PROJECTILES: Projectiles for battering purposes are made of cast-iron, chilled iron, and steel. Against parapets of earth common shell containing large bursting-charges are the most effective. Compound shot, having chilled cast-iron heads and cast-steel bodies, give good results, but they lack the power to carry their bursting-charge behind the armor which they can penetrate. The hardness and tenacity of steel shot and shell make them very effective against all kinds of armor. The great cost prevents their use when good results can be accomplished by chilled shot. Gunpowder is not a sufficiently powerful explosive for these strong shells, and, moreover, it explodes on impact. Satisfactory experiments have been made with bursting-charges of gun-cotton, which only explodes when the penetration is complete. Both forged and cast steel shells, well tempered, have perforated great thicknesses of wrought iron, in direct hitting, without being injured. Cast-steel projectiles, compressed by an hydraulic press while in a fluid state to drive out bubbles, give excellent results. In direct fire against steel-faced armor, cast-steel shells, owing to their great hardness, behave better than those of forged steel. The reverse is the case in oblique fire, where tenacity and toughness are the main considerations. All steel projectiles thus far tried break up against steel-faced armor in oblique fire. The longer the head of the projectile the greater the effect in direct fire, while for oblique fire the best effects are obtained with heads struck with a radius of two diameters. The flat-headed projectiles are much inferior to those with pointed heads in both direct and oblique fire. The respective advantages of light and heavy shells may be said to be as follows, assuming the powder-charge to be constant: The heavier shells, though starting with a lower initial velocity, keep up their velocity better than lighter ones, and so have a longer range of penetrative effect. The lighter shells have a higher velocity at short ranges, and a flatter trajectory; also, a greater number can be carried for a given weight. The projectile must no be so heavy as to strain the gun unduly, but this is easily avoided by the use of slow-burning powder and air-spacing. The cavity in shells should be as capacious as possible, so as to carry a large bursting-charge, but this will be controlled by the thickness which the head and walls must possess to give the necessary strength. See Armor-plates.

BATTERY: A term applied to one or more pieces of artillery, or to the place where they were positioned. In the Union army a battery was usually made up of six pieces of the same kind of cannon, while a battery in the Confederate army usually constituted four weapons. Batteries, under the command of a captain, were further broken down into sections. Each section consisted of two guns under the command of a lieutenant. One gun, along with a caisson and limber, was designated as a platoon and served under a sergeant and two corporals. A battery in the Union army could exceed 100 men and officers.

BATTERY ASSIGNMENT: Batteries were often assigned by how or where they were in position (served), or by a specified purpose in battle. The usual assignments were:

Ambulant - heavy weapons mounted on traveling carriages and moved, as circumstances required, to positions on a coast or to locations under siege.

Barbette - battery with no embrasures. Weapons were raised to fire over the parapet.

Breaching - sustained, directed fire against a specific target such as a fort wall. The purpose was to punch a hole through the target, thereby weakening or destroying it.

Coast - heavy weapons mounted permanently or semi-permanently for defense on the coast.

Counter - one battery opposed against another.

Covered - a battery intended for vertical fire and concealed from the enemy.

Cross - batteries which formed a cross fire on any object.

Defilade - batteries protected from a plunging fire directed from adjoining heights.

Direct - a battery ranged parallel to the face of the target so shot could strike perpendicularly.

Enfilading - shot or shell which swept the whole length of a line of troops or part of a work.

Horizontal - terreplein was that of the natural level of the ground, and the parapet alone was raised and the ditch sunk.

In Battery - siege battery with its guns run forward into embrasures, or a field battery with its guns unlimbered ready for action.

Indented - constructed with salient and re-entering angles for obtaining an oblique, as well as direct fire, and afforded shelter from the enfilade fire of the enemy.

Joint - batteries uniting fire against any object.

Masked - batteries artificially concealed until required to open upon the enemy.

Oblique - a battery which formed an angle of 200 or more with the object against which it was directed.

Open - a battery without epaulment or other covering, wholly exposed.

Plunging - shot fired from a position considerably higher than the target.

Raised - terreplein was elevated considerably above the ground.

Reverse - batteries which fired upon the rear of a work or line of troops.

Ricochet - batteries which fired projectiles at low angles. The projectiles grazed the ground or water and bounced without being buried.

Sunken - the base of the embrasure was on a level with the ground and the platforms were consequently sunk below it.

BATTERY-GUN: A gun having a capacity for firing a number of shots consecutively or simultaneously without stopping to reload. There are many varieties.

  1. A piece of ordnance having a number of load-chambers attached to a vertical axis, and consecutively presented at the rear of the cannon-bore. As each takes its place at the breach, it is advanced into the bore and locked before firing.
  2. A chambered breech-piece, revolving in a vertical plane, and presenting its chambers consecutively at the open rear of the barrel, which is common to all the chambers. The principle of construction is that of the revolving chambered pistol.
  3. A number of parallel barrels arranged in rank, and having connected vents for intercommunication of fire. The infernal-machine of Fieschi, which he fired on Louis Philippe, was a row of barrels clinched to a frame, and had a train of powder which was laid over all the vents in succession, like the row of barrels in a proving-house.
  4. The Requa battery consists of 25 rifles, each 24 inches long, mounted in a horizontal plane upon a field-carriage. It is breech-loading, the cartridges being forced into the chambers by a sliding-bar worked by two levers. By a lever beneath the frame the barrels may be diverged , so as to scatter the balls 120 yards in a distance of 1000 yards. The weight of the battery-gun used at Charleston, S. C., was 1382 pounds. Served by three men, it fired seven volleys, or 175 shots, per minute. Its effective range was 1300 yards.

  5. Forms of many-barreled cannon revolving on a vertical axis, the pieces being muzzle-loaded.

BATTERY WAGON: A two-wheeled cart used to carry the tools and supplies necessary to keep the leather, cloth, and wood equipment of the battery in good condition. It was linked to the limber to form a four-wheeled vehicle.

BATTLEMENT: A wall or parapet with indentations or notches.

BLAKELY GUN: The most approved pattern of the Blakely gun combines in its construction the principles of "initial tension" and "varying elasticity," the object of which is to bring the strength of all the metal of the piece into simultaneous play, to resist explosion.

The drawing shows the general features of the gun. The inner tube, or barrel, is made of low steel, having considerable but not quite enough elasticity. The next tube is made of high steel with less elasticity, and is shrunk on to the barrel with just sufficient tension to compensate for the insufficient difference of elasticity between the two tubes. The outer cast-iron jacket, to which the trunnions are attached, is the least elastic of all, and is put on with only the shrinkage attained by warming it over a fire. The steel tubes are cast hollow and hammered over steel mandrels, under steam-hammers: by this process they are elongated about 130 per cent; at the same time the tenacity of the metal is increased. All the steel parts are annealed.

Captain Blakely uses other combinations of these metals, the simplest of which is a cast-iron gun with hoops of steel surrounding the reinforce. He objects to the use of wrought-iron on account of its tendency to stretch permanently. Blakely guns are rifled with one-sided grooves, and are fired with expanding projectiles. The following are the dimensions, etc., of Blakely all-steel guns:

 

 

Gun.

Weight

Diam. Of

Bore.

Length

Of Bore.

No. of

Grooves.

Twist.

Weight of Projectile

Weight of Powder

Lbs.

In.

In.

1 turn in

Calibers.

Lbs.

Lbs.

100-pdr…. 8,000 6.4 96 8 48 100 10
120-pdr…. 9,000 7 100 8 48 120 12
200-pdr…. 17,000 8 44-156 12 48 200 20
250-pdr…. 24,000 9 Do. 12 48 250 25
350-pdr…. 30,000 10 Do. 15 48 350 35
350-pdr…. 35,000 11 Do. 12 36 550 55
700-pdr…. 40,000 12 Do. 12 36 700 70

See Ordnance.

BLAKELY PROJECTILE: This projectile has an expanding copper cup attached to its base by means of a single tap-bolt in the center, or other simple means. It is prevented from turning by radial grooves cast on the surface of the bottom of the projectile, into which the cup is pressed by the charge. The angle between the curved sides of the cup and the bottom of the projectile is filled with a lubricating material. On the forward part of the body are soft metal studs, more numerous than the grooves of the bore of the piece, that some of them may always form a bearing surface for the projectile against the lands. The driving sides of the grooves are deeper than the other. See Expanding Projectiles.

BLANK CARTRIDGE: A cartridge filled with powder, but having no projectile.

BLIND SHELL: A projectile with a hollow cavity which was plugged and not intended to have been fitted with a fuze. This projectile weighed less than a solid shot of the same caliber, which increased its velocity when it was fired. This shell which was similar to the cored-shot, also decreased the strain on the cannon.

BOAT GUN: Brass weapon designated by the Navy to be mounted on smaller boats for use on waterways and coastal areas. The primary guns were 12- and 24-pounder smoothbores and the 12-pounder rifled Dahlgren howitzer.

BOLSTER: A block of wood on the carriage of a siege gun. The breech rested on this when the piece was moved from place to place.

BOLT: See Solid Shot.

BOMB: A missile which also receives the names of bomb-shell and shell. It is a hollow ball, usually of cast-iron, fired from a mortar or other large piece of ordnance, and filled with combustibles which work great havoc when the ball bursts by the firing. All such projectiles were formerly fired from mortars only, and there was thus a definite relation between the bomb and the mortar; but since the invention of shell-guns and other modern pieces of artillery, the name shell has been generally substituted for that of bomb. The 13-inch bomb, which is the largest size used in ordinary warfare, weighs about 195 pounds., with a thickness of metal varying from 1 to 2 inches at different parts; it bursts with about 8 pounds. of powder. The vent through which it is filled with powder is, after the filling, closed with a plug called a fuze, which sets fire to the powder, and at the proper moment bursts the bomb into fragments. The 10-inch bomb, weighing about 90 pounds., is proportionally less in all dimensions than that just described; and so on for those of smaller diameters. It should be understood, however, that the above are conventional quantities prescribed and adopted more than half a century ago. Modern artillerists try experiments on bombs of various degrees of thickness with various charges and fuzes. See Shell.

BOMB CHEST: A chest of powder placed underground which caused destruction when exploded by a fuze.

BOMB-KETCH: Also known as Bomb-Vessel. A small naval vessel strongly constructed to serve as a floating platform that supported the weight of and firing of a mortar or to transport mortars.

BOMB-PROOF: A term applied to military structures of such immense thickness and strength that bombs cannot penetrate them. Military buildings generally within permanent fortifications, and which are formed so as to withstand the shock of heavy shot or shell falling on them. Magazines for holding gunpowder should be placed in the most sheltered position within a fortress, and strongly constructed to resist direct and vertical fire from heavy ordnance. In the forts recently built for coast-defense in England, 17 feet of masonry as been considered necessary against direct fire, and an arch 3 feet thick, with 3 feet of concrete over the roof, against vertical fire.


BOMB-PROOF MAGAZINE:
For field-works of a semi-permanent character which are to be indefinitely occupied, have an armament of heavy guns, and are expected to stand a siege, - like the defenses around Washington, for example, - the magazines, bomb- and splinter-proof shelters should be constructed of the heaviest timber, and be covered securely with earth from the assailant’s curvated and direct fire. The ventilation of the magazines and precautions for their drainage are of the utmost importance. The drawing shows a cross-section of a magazine constructed in a work of this character. The sides of the interior of the magazine are formed of twelve-inch logs placed vertically in juxtaposition and resting upon a ground-sill. These are capped on top by a two-inch board, a strip of a like kind being spiked on within the cap. The top is formed of fifteen-inch logs, also in juxtaposition, each having a shoulder of three inches to fit it to the cap and inside strip. Longitudinal logs are laid on these with varying diameters, so as to give a proper pitch for the roof. Earth is solidly packed upon the top and between the roof-logs, receiving the proper slope for the roofing-boards. These boards, carefully jointed, are laid on in two thicknesses, each being covered with a coating of asphalt. The flooring of the magazine is of joists and boards. The sides of the magazine are surrounded with an air-chamber formed by inclined logs supported on a ground-sill and resting against the top logs; these are placed at three or four feet apart, each one being braced at the middle point to resist flexure from the pressure of earth. The chamber is covered in by saplings laid in juxtaposition. There are ventilators between the magazine and the air-chamber near the top, and also between the latter and the external air; the two not being opposite, and the usual precautions to guard against accident from sparks being taken. The earth-cover is ten feet on the exposed side, and six feet on the other sides and on top. The entrance to the magazine is well secured by a bomb-proof covering. A slope is given from the interior to the foot of the steps leading to the level of the floor for the purposes of draining.

BOMB-PROOF QUARTERS: Casemated bomb-proof quarters are indispensable to the safety and comfort of the garrison during siege, or any prolonged attack for the annoyance of reduction of the work by a bombardment. In small works like most of our forts, which are chiefly designed for sea-coast defense, casemated quarters have been generally arranged in the rear of the batteries a portion of each casemate towards the parade being partitioned off and suitably disposed for the object in view. In some cases advantage is taken of a scarp-wall, on a land-front, which is well covered by a glacis or other face-cover, to form in its rear quarters of this character. In all cases care should be taken to place such quarters on those fronts which are best covered from a direct fire, and the parade-walls of which are not exposed to reverse-fire. Whenever the plan of the work admits of it, quarters of this kind should be arranged for defense, by being pierced with loop-holes and even with embrasures for cannon. Defensive casemated quarters form a prominent and distinctive feature in what is now known as the German School of Permanent Fortification.


BOMB-PROOF SHELTERS:
These structures are for the protection of the troops when not on duty. They should be located on the parade, convenient to the pieces to be served, yet not so near as to interfere with the defense. They are usually constructed in half-excavation of logs built up like a log-house, or of a framework in the manner shown in the drawing, the exterior side being of heavy logs placed vertically in juxtaposition, resting on a ground-sill and capped at top. Parallel to this is another row, forming the other side, which may also be placed side by side or at short intervals apart, and capped like the outside row. The roof, consisting of heavy logs laid in juxtaposition and covered with thick boards joined, rests on the capping, the whole covered over on the side of the enemy with earth to a depth of at least 14 feet from the wood-work. To prevent this mass of earth from pushing the structure over to the rear, one in every two or three of the roof-logs is cut of sufficient length to extend about 8 feet beyond the front of the wall, and dovetailed to a longitudinal log help in position by vertical posts, the anchor-log being sufficiently covered with earth to protect it from injury by shot from the enemy. These bomb-proofs are made to serve the purpose of traverses, and are frequently arranged with a staging or gallery along the rear side for the accommodation of infantry, who deliver their fire over the top, arranged for this as a parapet. In all interior arrangements, system and regularity should be observed from the first; otherwise the work will grow into a labyrinth of confusion greatly opposed to efficiency and comfort. See Shelters and Splinter-proof Shelters.


BOMBARD:
An ancient piece of ordnance, which was very short, thick, and wide in the bore. It differed from the balista in being worked with gun-powder instead of by mechanical force, and from the mortar in shooting forth stones instead of iron shells. Some of the bombards used in the fifteenth century propelled stones weighing from 200 to 500 pounds. each. The shape of the first cannon used after the invention of gunpowder was conical, internally and externally resembling an apothecary’s mortar. They were called mortars, bombards, and vases; were fired at high angles; and in consequence of the slow burning of the powder of that day and the conical shape of the bore, the stone balls projected by them proceeded with very little velocity and accuracy. Bombards were made first of wood banded with wrought-iron, then of sheet-iron strengthened by hoops and brazing, and later of longitudinal iron bars, connected and hooped, like the staves of a cask. As none of these constructions gave the requisite strength, cannon were subsequently made of wrought-iron, then of cast-iron, and finally of bronze.

BOMBARDIER: An artilleryman versed in that department of arms which relates especially to bombs and shells, mortars and howitzers, grenades and fuzes. He has learned to load shells and grenades, fix fuzes, prepare composition for fuzes and tubes, etc.; and on the field or at sieges he fires the mortars. In some foreign armies the bombardiers form a separate corps; but usually there are some attached to every battery.

BOMBARDMENT: A showering of shells, red-hot shots, carcasses, rockets, or other incendiary projectiles, into a fortress or fortified city with the purpose being to burn and destroy the buildings and injure or kill people. Military engineers regarded bombardments against civilian cities as a cruel operation, but it was used to force a surrender or retreat of the occupying army in that area. Bombardments were used during siege operations against the cities of Atlanta, Vicksburg, Petersburg, and Richmond. An attack upon a fortress or fortified town by means of shells, red-hot shot, carcasses, rockets, etc., to burn and destroy the buildings and kill the people. A bombardment is most likely to be successful when the place is destitute of bomb-proof cover; or when the Governor is too humane to expose the unoffending inhabitants to this dreadful ordeal; or when the population is strong enough to compel him to yield. A bombardment requires little engineering science; whereas to reduce a place by regular siege requires the aid of engineers to direct the attack against fortifications, guns, and soldiery, leaving the inhabitants and buildings untouched. Military engineers generally regard a bombardment as a cruel operation; it is especially directed against the civilians and their buildings, as a means of inducing or compelling the Governor to surrender the place and terminate their miseries. In a well-defended place, the soldiers, the ammunition, and the defense-works suffer comparatively little, seeing that the bombardiers aim at pitching their terrible missiles into the heart of the place. In modern times a bombardment is mostly adopted as an adjunct to a siege, distracting the Governor by an incessant fire of mortars day and night. At Sebastopol, for instance, the mortars fired shells into the center of the city, to weaken the defense of the forts which were cannonaded by the siege-guns. Bombardment is more frequently a naval than a military operation. The stores required for a vigorous bombardment are immense. Thus, in 1759 Rodney threw 20,000 shells and carcasses into Havre; in 1792 the Duke of Saxe-Teschen threw 36,000 shot and shell into Lille in 140 hours; in 1795 Pichegru threw 8000 shells into Manheim in 16 hours; and in 1807 the English threw 11,000 shot and shell into Copenhagen in three days.

BONNET: A part of the parapet elevated to secure the terreplein from enfilade fire.

BORE: Includes all the drilled out portion of the tube including the chamber (if there is one), the cylinder, and the conical or spherical surface connecting them with the drilled out section.

BORE DIAMETER: The cannon diameter at its muzzle measured from wall to wall in a smoothbore, and from land to land in a rifled tube.

BORE LENGTH: The entire length measurement inside the tube including the chamber, if one was present.

BORMANN FUZE: This fuze is the invention of an officer of the Belgian service. The case is made of an alloy of tin and lead, cast in iron molds. It’s shape is that of a thick circular disk; and a screw-thread is cut upon its edge, by which it is fastened into the fuze-hole of the projectile. The upper surface is marked with two recesses and a graduated are. The former are made to receive the prongs of a screw-driver; and the latter overlies a circular groove, filled with mealed powder, tightly pressed in and covered with a metal cap. The only outlet to the groove containing the mealed powder is under the zero of the graduation; this outlet, or channel, is filled with rifle-powder, and leads down to a circular recess which is filled with musket-powder and covered with a perforated disk of tin. To enable this fuze to resist the shock of discharge, and at the same time to increase the effect of a small bursting-charge, the lower portion of the fuze-hole is closed with a perforated disk.

Before the projectile is inserted into the piece, a cut is made across the graduated portion, laying bare a small proportion of the mealed powder, which, being ignited by the flame of the charge, burns in both directions until the outlet is reached and the grain-powder ignited. The graduations are seconds and quarter-seconds, and the time of burning of the fuze depends on the length of the column of mealed powder included between the incision and outlet. If the metal covering be not cut, the projectile may be fired as a solid shot. The Bormann fuze is used for the field and siege services, and is found to be accurate and reliable, especially for spherical-case shot. The time of burning not being long enough for the general service of rifle-projectiles, the paper time-fuze is used instead of it for all of those projectiles which require the time-fuze. It is inserted into a zinc plug, which is screwed into the fuze-hole of the projectile.

The action of the Bormann fuze is as follows: The thin covering of metal above the composition is cut so as to lay bare the upper surface of the composition, and to afford the flame access to it at the part desired. The cut should be made with the fuze-cutter close to the right of the mark in the index-plate; and it is best made in two or three efforts instead of trying to effect the cut at once. The combustion occupies the assigned time in passing from the incision towards the origin of the graduation, when it traverses the orifice leading into the magazine, the contents of which explode smartly towards the interior, and then encounter instantly the charge in the shell. The metal of this fuze being soft and its diameter great, there is danger of its screw-thread being stripped, and its being driven in by the shock of firing, or of its being driven out of the ignition of the bursting-charge, thus affording a means of escape for the gas evolved, without bursting the shell. To prevent the former, a broad shoulder, aa, is left when the fuze-hole is tapped. To avoid the possibility of the latter and at the same time to increase the effect of a small bursting-charge, the fuze-hole below the shoulder is closed by screwing in a composition disk, b, with a small hole in its center through which the fire from the fuze is communicated to the charge.

The peculiar excellence of this fuze consists in the driving of the whole mass of the composition by a single pressure, and its disposition in such wise that the combustion occurs not with the stratification of the mass, but transversely to it, while in the ordinary fuzes the solidification and the process of combustion are just the reverse; that is, the column is composed of a number of layers solidified successively by an equal pressure; but as the inferior layers have, besides the pressure applied to them, to bear that of the superincumbent layers, it follows that the mass is not homogeneous, but increases in density with the inferior position of the layers. See Fuzes and Time-fuze.

BOTTOM OF BORE: That portion of the bore which formed a plane perpendicular to the axis of the piece. It was extremely important to sponge this area thoroughly as it often contained sparks from incomplete burning of the powder bag.

BOURRELET: The raised rings on a rifled projectile larger in diameter than the projectile body. These rings helped center the projectile in the bore and were turned on a lathe to the dimension needed. Two bourrelets were the most common pattern and most often found on Confederate projectiles. Also referred to as a bearing surface.

BOW-CHASER: Also known as the bow-piece. A gun placed in the bow of a vessel.

BRASS: An alloy composed of copper and zinc and not suitable for ordnance. During the Civil War the term "brass" was often inaccurately used when describing bronze.

BREACH: An opening or rupture made in the wall of a fortification usually caused by the use of sustained shots fired against a pre-determined section. The most common way to cause a breach was to fire projectiles along a line and close together. Once the holes were made, the section was then heavily shelled until the breach was complete. Breaches were made to allow projectiles to reach vulnerable parts of a fort or to facilitate the passage of charging infantry.

BREASTWORK: A breastwork was a hastily constructed parapet, usually made of earth and wood, designed to protect the defenders against artillery and musketry fire. Also known as an entrenchment or field trench. Breastworks were normally constructed by the engineers, but in case of rapid troop movements the individual soldier was responsible for digging the emplacement. Breastworks usually contained a parapet, a revetment, and a banquette. In many cases the front of the work was protected by a deep ditch (from which earth was excavated to construct the parapet) or other obstructions such as abatis or chevaux-de-frize. The Civil War was the first conflict to make extensive use of trench warfare.

BREECH: The mass of solid metal behind the bottom of the bore of a gun which extended to the rear of the base ring.

BREECH BASE: A spherical segment forming the rear surface of the breech.

BREECH-LOADER: A type of weapon loaded through the breech rather than the muzzle. The rifled cannon had a screw assembly at the breech which could be opened for loading and then secured closed for firing. A few breech-loader cannons were introduced during the Civil War, but most were not successful in testing. The Whitworth and Armstrong cannons were notable exceptions.

BREECH PIN: A strong iron plug screwed into the breech end of a gun.

BREECH SIGHT: An upright sheet of brass which had a graduated scale of tangents and a movable slide that could be tightened down at any location on the scale. It was attached to a circular band which rested on the breech. When aiming the weapon, the gunner placed the sight on the breech and lined up the front sight with the slide. The range was then calculated and the gun elevated to the appropriate degree reading.

BREECHING: 1. The breeching of a gun or carronade is a strong rope by which the recoil of the gun is checked at such a point that the muzzle is brought wholly within the port-hole, where the sea-men can sponge and reload it. 2. Harness adapted to the wheel-horses of gun-carriages, near and off, for the purpose of facilitating the stopping of a gun in motion. Breechings, near and off, are strengthened with a lay of leather.

BRICOLE: See Men’s Harness.

BRITTEN GUN: This gun has five shallow grooves, and the projectile is expanding, being made of iron, but having a lead envelope, and a wooden sabot. The shell loads easily, being less in diameter than the bore; but when the gun is fired, the gas drives the sabot against the envelope and expands the lead into the grooves, so that the shot acquires a rotatory motion. The wooden sabot is now replaced by an iron shoe-piece, which is soldered to the soft-metal envelope; it is not liable, like the sabot, to partial separation, and serves to protect the soft metal.

BRITTEN PROJECTILE: The most novel and valuable part of this projectile is the fastening of a lead ring to an iron shot, by zinc solder, so firmly that the explosion will not strip it off. The process of coating is as follows: The iron projectile is heated to a dull-red heat, dipped in sal-ammoniac, which thoroughly cleans the surface, held for about two minutes in a bath of melted zinc alloyed with antimony, and then placed in a bath of melted lead, hardened with zinc or tin, for three or four minutes. It is finally placed in an iron mold, and lead from the last bath is poured around it. The projectile, thus coated, is squeezed out of the mold by a screw. A wooden plug, was sometimes screwed to the bottom of this projectile, is driven against the lead, and causes it to expand into the grooves. The amount of projection on the ring, as the projectile was formerly constructed, regulated the pressure of the lead against the bore, and was adjusted so as to just stop windage without wasting power or straining the gun. See Britten Gun.

BROADSIDE: A simultaneous discharge of all the guns on one side of a naval vessel.

BRONZE: An alloy composed of copper and tin. Field cannons were mostly made of bronze because the metal was light and durable such as the Model 1857 12-pounder Napoleon cannon. During the Civil War many of these weapons were mistakenly referred to as "brass."

BUDGE BARREL: An oak barrel with only one head. The other end was covered with leather and secured by a cord, similar to a purse. It was used in forts and siege batteries to carry powder bags from the magazine to the battery. The bags were then transferred to haversacks or pass-boxes and carried to the individual weapons.

BURRELSHOT: A canister filled with small shot, nails, pieces of iron or stone.

BURREL-SHOT: A medley of shot, stones, chunks of iron, etc., to be projected from a cannon at short range. Frequently called emergency-shot.

BURSTING-BAGS: Bags for the bursting-charges of common shell. In order to prevent the liability to occasional premature bursts when firing filled common shells from muzzle loading rifle guns of 7-inch caliber and upwards, it has been found necessary to enclose the bursting-charge in a serge bag.

BURSTING-CHARGE: 1. A small charge of fine powder, placed in contact with a charge of coarse powder or nitroleum to insure the ignition of the latter. It is usually fired by voltaic means. 2. The charge of powder required for bursting a shell or case-shot; it may be poured in loose, or placed in a burster-bag.

BUSHING: Also called "bushing a vent." This was a replacement vent made of metal, about one inch in diameter, with a hole drilled in the center. When the ruined or damaged vent was reamed out, the hole was threaded to receive the bushing. The most common metal used was pure copper.

BUTLER PROJECTILE: This projectile consists of a cast-iron body having a double-lipped expanding ring attached by a screw-thread to its base. Upon discharge, the powder-gases entering the cannelure of the ring expand the outer lip into the grooves communicating rotation to the projectile, and pressing the inner lip tightly against the base of the projectile tends to prevent stripping. The ring may be of brass (75 parts of copper to 25 of tin) or of an alloy of copper, tin, and brass, the brass being fuzed with the copper.

The Butler canister consists of a hollow cylinder made up of truncated iron wedges enclosed in an envelope of tin. The cylinder is closed at the bottom with a lead cup inclosing a disk of wood, and at the top with a sheet-iron plate, disks of tin being employed on the outside at both ends to facilitate soldering. The interior of the cylinder is filled with the round iron balls. See Expanding Projectiles and Projectiles.

CAISSON: A two-wheel cart carrying two ammunition chests and attached to a limber by a long pole. The limber also carried an ammunition chest and the entire unit was pulled by a six-horse team. Ammunition expended from the limber chest was replaced from the caisson chest. The specified number of rounds carried by each caisson and its limber was: for 6-pounder guns - 150 rounds; for 12-pounder guns - 96 rounds; for 12-pounder howitzers - 117 rounds; for 24-pounder howitzers - 69 rounds; and for 32-pounder howitzers - 45 rounds. When the limber chest was emptied, a replacement was carried forward from the caisson, which was usually parked to the rear of the battery. Caissons also carried a spare limber pole and wheel, pick axes, shovel, axe, and some miscellaneous tools. The number of caissons assigned to field batteries were: with a battery of 12-pounders - eight caissons for guns and four for howitzers; with a battery of 6-pounders - four caissons for guns and two for howitzers.

1. A carriage used to transport ammunition; in light field-batteries there is one caisson to each piece, in heavy batteries there are two. The ammunition is contained in three chests – two mounted on the body, and one on the limber. The number of rounds for each chest varies with the caliber of the piece, as follows, viz.:

 

6-pdr. Gun and 3-inch rifle-gun……………….50

12-pdr. Gun……………………………………32

12-pdr. Howitzer………………………………39

24-pdr. Howitzer………………………………23

32-pdr. Howitzer………………………………15

 

The whole number of rounds for each piece may be ascertained by multiplying the above numbers by four. The caisson is composed of a body and a limber. The body is composed of one middle and two side rails (1), one stock (2), and one axletree (3). It carries two ammunition-chests (4, 5), a spare wheel (6), which fits upon an iron axle-arm attached to the rear end of the middle rail, one spare pole (7), fastened to the under side of the stock, and a spare handspike.

The spare articles are needed to replace broken parts. The caisson also carries a felling-axe, shovel, and pick-axe, to remove obstructions, repair roads, etc., a tarpaulin strapped on to the limber-chest, a tar-bucket, and a watering-bucket. See Field-carriages.

2. In engineering, a hollow box of iron or wood, open at the bottom, sunk where piers are to be placed. The largest caisson yet sunk was for the tower of the Brooklyn bridge on the New York side. At the bottom it was 172 feet long and 102 feet wide, with an air-chamber 9 feet high, the roof 22 feet thick, and the sides carried up 82 feet from the lower edge. It had a cofferdam in the upper part; was built of timber lined with boiler-iron, and bolted together. In its construction there were used of lumber, board measure, 4,200,000 feet, and of iron, including bolts, 620 tons. When completed it weighed 13,271 tons, and there were 30,000 tons of masonry laid within it. There were two double air-locks extending into the air-chamber, in which were steam-pipes to keep an even temperature. Two shafts passed up through well-holes in the masonry, with an elevator in one and two spiral stairways in the other. Below the lowest edge of the caisson extended two water-shafts, each 7 8/4 feet in diameter, in which dredges and scoops grappled the stones and soil, raising their loads to cars above, which conveyed the refuse away. At the same time sand and fine dirt were blown out by air-pressure through forty or more pipes in various parts of the structure. The interior was illuminated by gas, and constant communication by telegraph was keep up with the workmen inside. There were four shafts, each 2 feet in diameter, for the introduction of material for the concrete with which the whole interior was finally filled. The caisson was sunk 78 feet below mean tide, a work that required a pressure of 34 pounds per square inch in addition to the normal pressure of air; and to supply this addition, thirteen large compressors were used. The earliest caissons for such purposes were used in England in 1738-40 in laying the foundations of the Westminster bridge over the Thames.

CALIBRE: 1) The diameter of a cannon's bore expressed in inches, or the weight of the solid shot corresponding to it. 2) The inside diameter of a firing tube.

CALIPER: The caliper was used to measure lengths of time fuzes, fuze plugs, diameter of shot, and caliber of cannons. It was made of hinged sheet brass with steel points. A graduated scale along the side was set up in inches and divisions.

CANISTER: A metal cylinder made of tin, iron, or lead, with a removable thin iron top. A heavy iron plate is usually located between the canister balls and the wooden sabot at the bottom. The cylinder contains iron or lead balls which are arranged in rows with sawdust packed between them. The top edge of the vertical cylinder wall is bent over the iron top plate to help keep the canister contents in place and the bottom edge is nailed to the wooden sabot. Canister was designed to be used close range against enemy troops with the desired effect being that of a huge shotgun blast. It was recommended for use at ranges under 350 yards. A 12-pounder canister for the Napoleon smoothbore contained twenty-seven iron balls while the 12-pounder howitzer contained forty-eight iron balls. Canister was used in field, mountain, siege, and seacoast weapons.

CANISTER-SHOT: A canister-shot is a metallic cylinder about one caliber in length, filled with balls and closed at both ends with wooden or metal disks. They are supplied for all guns. For 8-inch canister, and all those of less caliber, the envelope is made of tin, while canister for the larger calibers have an envelope of iron. The bottom of 15-inch canister is made of two thicknesses of 1-inch hard wood, crossing each other, and put together with wrought-iron nails clinched. A spindle, with a wrought-iron handle passing through the center of the canister, is riveted on the bottom through a square plate. All other canister have bottom-heads of one thickness of hard wood. Top-heads are all made of white pine. The case is notched, turned over the heads, and tacked down. The balls for all canister are 1.3 inch diameter, and the number used varies with the caliber. To give more solidity to the mass, and prevent the balls from crowding upon each other when the piece is fired, the interstices are closely packed with sawdust. See Case-shot, Projectiles, Rifle-canister, and Siege and Garrison Ammunition.

CANNELURE: A groove cut or cast into the base of a projectile. This allowed lubricant or soft lead to be drawn down when the projectile traveled through the bore during firing.

CANNON: A general name for large pieces of ordnance or artillery, as distinguished from those pieces which can be held in the hand while being fired. No military weapon in use before the invention of gunpowder can fairly come under this designation; they were more generally of the kinds described under Balista. At what exact date cannon were first used is not known; but cannon, called "crakys of war," were employed by Edward III at Creecy, and at Calais in 1346. The first cannon or combards were clumsy, wider at the mouth than at the chamber, and made of iron bars hooped together with iron rings. The balls fired from them were first made of stone, afterwards superseded by iron. In the fifteenth century various kinds were known by the names of cannon, bombards, culverins, serpentines, etc. Bombards of great length and power were employed by Louis XI during his Flemish campaign in 1477, some with stone balls, some with iron. About this time cannon began to be made by casting instead of with hooped bars; and bronze or brass as a material began to be used as well as iron. The cannon of the sixteenth century were generally smaller, but better finished, than those of the fifteenth. The largest cannon made in the seventeenth century, so far as is known, was the Bejapoor cast-iron gun, "Malick e’ Meidan," or "Lord of the Plain," made either by Aurungzebe or by the Mahrattas; it was 14 feet long, 28 inches bore, and required a ball of 1600 pounds. weight. From the time of the great European wars in that century, cannon have undergone vast improvements, as well as the science and art of artillery necessary for their management.

Cast-iron cannon may generally be divided into five principal parts, viz., Breech, Cylinder, Curve, Chase, and Muzzle. The Breech is the mass of solid metal in rear of the bottom of the bore: the thickness is usually somewhat greater than the greatest thickness of metal in the cylinder. The Cylinder is that portion between the base-ring and trunnions, including the seat of charge and the point where the greatest strain is exerted upon the gun. The Curve is the portion connecting the cylinder with the chase. It is made somewhat thicker than necessary to resist the pressure of the powder, in order to serve as a proper point of support for the trunnions, and to compensate for certain defects of metal liable to occur in the vicinity of the trunnions of all cast cannon, arising from the crystalline arrangement and unequal cooling of the different parts. The Chase is the long, tapering portion of the gun extending from the curve to the muzzle. The principal injury to which the chase is liable in smooth-bore guns arises from the striking or balloting of the projectile against the side of the bore; and the thickness of metal should be sufficient to resist it. The Muzzle is the increased thickness of metal which terminates the chase. Inasmuch as the metal situated immediately at the muzzle is supported under the direction of the Secretary of War, with the general Signal Service of the army; with the custody of all records and apparatus connected therewith; with the equipment and management of field-telegraphs used with active forces in the field; with constructing and operating lines of military telegraph; with maintaining signal stations at light-houses and at life-saving stations, and with the observations and reports required by law. The general nomenclature for cannon was: knob, neck, vent, trunnion, muzzle swell, muzzle face, muzzle, rimbase, cascable, breech, chamber, and bore.

 

CANNON CREW: See Artillery Crew.

CANNON SIGHT: Generic term given to the different methods of aligning the piece and the equipment used to calculate and determine range and accuracy.

CANNONADE: 1) The report of heavy guns. 2) To attack with artillery.

CANNON BALL: See Solid Shot.

CANNONEERS: See Artillery Crew.

CAP OF A CANNON: See Apron.

CAP SQUARE: Iron plates which closed over the trunnions of a gun to secure it to the carriage.

CARCASS: Spherical shell which had four holes, the same size as a fuze hole, formed around the center at equal distances apart. The holes were filled with a combustible composition which burned with intense power for eight to ten minutes. The flame shooting from the holes set fire to everything combustible. Carcass was used in bombardments, to set fire to shipping, and to set fire to the enemy’s works.

CARRIAGE: Although the term may include the limber and caisson, the most common definition applies to the gun carriage. The carriage was designed to support the weapon when fired and, if movable, to transport it from place to place. Most field carriages were made of white oak and metal hardware. In the transportation mode the carriage was attached to a limber by means of a hook-and-eye arrangement. Siege (semi-permanent) and seacoast (permanent) carriages were usually wrought iron or heavy wood. Siege carriages were divided into two types - barbette or casemate - depending upon where they were mounted.

CARRONADE: A short naval gun of large caliber designed for firing at ships close together in action.

CARTRIDGE BAG: Also known as a Powder Bag. These bags were filled with black powder and were seated between the bottom of the bore and the base of the projectile. The bag was punctured by the priming wire, and a friction primer was inserted in the vent to allow the transfer of the spark to ignite the charge. Earlier in the Civil War, quick matches and slow matches were used to ignite the powder charge. Powder bags were made of a woolen material (merino, wildbore, or bombazette) completely free of cotton which had a tendency to retain fire. Flannel and paper were also used.

CASCABEL: That part of the cannon tube in the rear of the base ring. It was composed of the knob, neck, fillet, and the base of the breech. The cascabel was used to facilitate the handling of the piece when mounting and dismounting, and when moving it when it was off the carriage.

CASEMATE: A bomb-proof vaulted chamber with an embrasure for cannons. Casemates were constructed along the face and rear of a fort for service as quarters and hospital during engagements. A weapon mounted in this chamber was referred to as a casemate gun.

CASE-SHOT: Also known as spherical case-shot. Similar to the common shell except that the walls of the projectile were thinner. In both spherical and rifled projectiles, the bursting charge was usually located in a thin tin or iron container and placed in the center of the internal cavity. The case-shot was placed around this container. The cavity was usually filled with lead or iron balls in a sulphur or pitch matrix. The small bursting charge of black powder was designed to disperse the case-shot balls in a cone-shaped pattern. The concept was to give the same effects of canister, but at much longer ranges. Spherical case-shot was invented by an Englishman named Lieutenant Henry Shrapnel of the Royal Artillery in 1784. For an example of a cross-section of a case-shot projectile.

CAST IRON: A hard brittle, impure form of iron obtained by re-melting pig-iron with limestone. It was inflexible, but strong and rugged. Cast iron was used in production of artillery weapons and projectiles.

CAVETTO: See Molding.

CHAIN-SHOT: Two hemispheres, or round shots, connected together by a length of chain. In theory, when this shot was fired it began a rotation which was expected to be useful in cutting the masts and rigging of naval vessels. In reality these shots could hang up at the muzzle and swing around, killing or injuring the cannon crew.

CHAMBER: The smaller diameter section of the bore near the breech of the gun which held the propellant charge for the projectile. A cylindrical chamber, shaped like a smaller diameter bore at the bottom of the main bore, was used in howitzers. Its base was rounded or square. A conical chamber (also known as a Gomer chamber after its inventor), shaped like a frustum of a cone, was used in mortars. A spherical chamber, a sphere joined by a small diameter cylinder to the bore, was used in early mortars.

CHAMFER: To cast, cut, or grind a beveled edge into or on the opening of a tube or barrel.

CHARCOAL: The combustible ingredient in gunpowder made from wood burned in a special process.

CHARGE: See Powder Charge.

CHASE: The long, tapering portion of the tube which extended from the curve to the muzzle.

CHASE GUN: Also known as a Chaser. A gun mounted at the bow or stern of a naval vessel used when chasing or being pursued by another vessel.

CHASE RING: A molding at the front end of the chase. In brass weapons the chase ring was replaced with astragals and fillets.

CHASER: See Chase Gun.

CHASSIS: The traversing railway of iron or wood upon which a siege gun carriage rested in a casemate or barbette battery. It was also used for recoil or moving it to the front.

CHEEK: The side piece of the gun carriage which supported the trunnion.

CHEVAUX-DE-FRIZE: Sharp poles arranged in a manner which presented an obstruction to attacking infantry or cavalry. When manufactured, they were made of iron with a barrel 6-feet long and 4-inches diameter. The spears were 5-feet, 9-inches long. When constructed on the field, which was the most common method, they were made of logs 12-feet long and 10-inches thick and were drilled through every foot for sharpened stakes. The stakes were set at right angle to the pole and were about 3-feet long. The primary use of chevaux-de-frize was to obstruct gaps, stop a breach, or form a line of obstructions in front of a fortification or line of breastworks.

CHEVRETTE: A machine for hoisting heavy guns upon their carriages.

CHILL: A piece of iron introduced into a mold so as to rapidly cool the surface of molten metal which comes in contact therewith. Cast-iron, like steel, is hardened by rapid cooling, and softened by the prolongation of the cooling process. The extreme in the former direction gives chilled iron the hardness of hardened steel: the extreme in the direction of softness is obtained by prolonging the heat, abstracting the carbon from the cast-iron, reducing it to a nearly pure crystalline iron. See Bronze Guns.

CHILL-HARDENING: A mode of tempering steel cutting-instruments, by exposing the red-hot metal to a blast of cold air.

CHILLED-IRON: Used only in casting rifled solid shot projectiles. In this process the cast iron was poured into specially designed molds. The point of the projectile cooled rapidly in a thick cast iron chill while the body cooled more slowly in sand. The portion of the projectile cast in contact with the chill developed greater hardness, crushing strength, considerable brittleness, and increased density, without causing brittleness in that portion cooled in sand. The tip or point of a chilled projectile occasionally broke off on impact.

CHILLED PROJECTILES: Chilled-iron projectiles have been profitably employed to pierce armor-plates, on account of their intense hardness. The English projectiles recommended by Major Palliser may be described as an example of a chilled projectile. The form of these is cylindro-conoidal, the head being ogival, struck with a radius of 1 diameters. The total length varies between 2 and 2 calibers. The bottom is flat, and in the center of the bottom is a filling-hole for shells, closed with a composition screw-plug. All Palliser shells are lackered internally to give them a smooth, clean lining, which prevents the iron from either oxidizing at the expense of the powder, or firing it from friction by rapid rotation during flight. As the lacker does not always hold well to the metal, serge bags are introduced to contain the bursting-charge as an additional prevention against premature explosion. These bags are made bottle-shaped, and are introduced through the filling-hole. Palliser shot are cored. The hollow up the center enables them to cool more uniformly, and renders them less liable to split. It also slightly improves its proportions and its regularity of flight. The bottom is closed with a plug. These projectiles are made of carefully selected iron, which, if run in sand-molds, would solidify as mottled iron. The projectiles are cast point down, for the sake of density and soundness in the head. The mold is formed of a metal chill at the bottom extending up past the junction of head and body; the remainder of the mold is formed of sand, as also is the case for the formation of the interior. The chilling action therefore extends a little past the head of the projectile, which thus has a mottled body and a white head. The Gruson projectiles are cast with a dead-head on the base, which is afterwards cut off, the object being to obtain a solid bottom to stand well under the shock of the discharge. The chilling is effected by the metal molds, in virtue of their great conducting-power, their thickness greatly affecting the extent of their action. The head thus chilled white possesses generally the quality of white iron, intense hardness, crushing-strength, considerable brittleness, and increased density. The tip or point of a chilled projectile is occasionally broken off by the impact of a shell or shot rolled or struck obliquely against it; for the point which may penetrate directly through many inches of armor without injury may be fractured by a very slight transverse blow. See Projectiles and Steel Projectiles.

CHOCK: Also called Roller Chock. A small wedge with a handle on the side. It was used to chock, or bind, the wheels of permanently mounted gun carriages to prevent movement once the

piece had been aligned and sighted.

COAST-BATTERIES: Batteries erected along a coast to protect the entrances of harbors and ports. They are armed with artillery of the largest caliber to oppose the landing of an enemy. The nature of ordnance for coast-defenses in England was in 1860 recommended to be as follows: the 10-inch gun of 86 cwt.; the 68-pdr. Of 95 cwt.; the 8-inch gun of 65 cwt.; the 32-pdr. Of 56 cwt.; the 13-inch sea-service mortar. Since the introduction of rifled artillery and armor-plated ships, the old smooth-bore guns, which formerly were used for coast-defense, have been superseded by the heavier rifled ordnance of the present day. See Ordnance.

COATED PROJECTILES: The surfaces of projectiles to which the lead covering is attached is smooth and the cannelures formerly in use to secure strength in the attachment of the lead are now omitted. The lead coating is held on by tinning, and at first cast on quite thick, but afterwards turned off in a lathe, leaving the usual projecting bands. The iron surface of the projectile is cast smooth, and then dipped in a solution of sal-ammoniac; after this it is immersed in a bath of melted zinc, and at the same time revolved on its long axis by means of an iron rod inserted in the fuze-hold. During this revolution, which is done by one workman, another presses a mass of sal-ammoniac, fastened to the end of an iron rod, on the surface of the projectile. After a sufficient amount of zinc is made in this way to adhere to the surface, the projectile is placed in an iron mold and the lead coating cast on it. The lead coat occasionally becomes detached in spots, where the lead has risen up into blisters from the formation of gas underneath it, occasioned by voltaic action between the different metals. Such blisters are generally very small, and may be pricked and then hammered down, without affecting the fitness of the projectile for service. If left to develop themselves, they have been known to attain a large size.

The surface of the coating usually has raised bands or welts to take the rifling of the piece. In the German service the front band, a, as shown in Fig. 1, is smaller in diameter than the others. Next larger is the band b, then comes the band c, and the largest in diameter of all is the rear band, d. The lead coating is preserved from injury by two grommets, which are nearly severed to facilitate removal, and the projectiles are stored in racks fitted in the shell-room. Sometimes the body of the projectile is not strictly cylindrical, but rather smaller at the base, the lead coating bringing the finished body into a cylinder. This form is considered good for penetration, but any lead coating must considerably retard the projectile in endeavoring to force its way through armor. The first is the safety-notch, the second is the half-cock-notch, and the third is the cock-notch. The pistol cannot be fired when the hammer rests in the safety-notch or half-cock-notch, and can be fired by pulling the trigger when the hammer rest in the cock-notch. The pistol should be carried habitually with the hammer resting in the safety-notch.

The drawings are vertical projections of this arm (one-half size). Fig. 2 shows the arrangement of the working parts, and is referred to in the nomenclature. The two back-strap screws just behind the hammer, the stock, the long-guard screw, gate, gate-catch screw, gate-spring, and gate-catch are not shown in Fig. 2. The gate is shown in Fig. 1. The operation of the parts is very simple. As the hammer is cocked, the hand, which is pivoted to its lower portion rises and engages the ratchet on the base of the cylinder, and causes it to revolve. The lower point or finger of the hand engages with one of the teeth of the ratchet just as the revolution of the cylinder has carried away the preceding tooth from the upper finger of the hand. This completes and insures the revolution by increasing the effective leverage of the hand. The bolt M engages the stop-notches in the surface of the cylinder, to prevent the momentum of the cylinder from carrying it past the firing-point. It is caused to disengage from them by the action of the hammer-cam K, which, rising during the cocking of the hammer, presses up the rear end of the bolt and liberates its front end from the notch. When the revolution is about complete the beveled lower surface of the hammer-cam comes opposite the point of the contact on the bolt. At this moment the tail of the bolt (being slit so as to have a lateral spring and the head being pressed upward by the flat spring U) slides down over the inclined surface of the cam, and the head engages with the stop-notch in the cylinder. The spring U is slit and bent so as to act upon both the bolt and the trigger. The bushing around the base-pin is useful by affording another surface for the revolution of the cylinder, and thereby diminishes the chances of sticking from dirt or rust. Both the cylinder and bushing may revolve on the base-pin, which in turn may revolve in its own bearings.

COLUMBIAD: A large diameter smoothbore cannon invented by Colonel Bomford and first used in the War of 1812. The Columbia Foundry in Washington, D.C., originally produced the piece, thus the name Columbiad. The Columbiad was a long, chambered piece, capable of projecting solid shot and shells, with heavy charges of powder, at high angles or elevation. They were equally suited to the defense of naval batteries along the coastal waterways and navigable rivers. These pieces were also mounted on wooden ships, ironclads, and monitors. Three calibers of Columbiads were used in battle; the 8-inch (weight 9,240 pounds and 124 inches long), the 10-inch (weight 15,400 pounds and 126 inches long), and Captain T.J. Rodman’s massive 15-inch Columbiad (weight 49,100 pounds and 190 inches long). A 12-inch and 20-inch Columbiad was also developed, but never employed in battle.


COLUMBIADS:
A species of sea-coast cannon which combine certain qualities of the gun, howitzer, and mortar; in other words, they are long, chambered pieces, capable of projecting solid shot and shells, with heavy charges of powder, at high angles of elevation, and are, therefore, equally suited to the defense of narrow channels and distant roadsteads. The Columbiad was invented by the late Colonel Bumford, and used in the War of 1812 for firing solid shot. In 1844 the model was changed, by lengthening the bore and increasing the weight of metal, to enable it to endure an increased charge of powder, or 1/6 of the weight of the solid shot. Six years after this it was discovered that the pieces thus altered did not always possess the requisite strength. In 1858 they were degraded to the rank of shell-guns, to be fired with diminished charges of powder, and their places supplied with pieces of improved model. The changes made in forming the new model consisted in giving greater thickness of metal in the prolongation of the axis of the bore, which was done by diminishing the length of the bore itself; in substituting a hemispherical bottom to the bore, and removing the cylindrical chamber; in removing the swell of the muzzle and base-ring; and in rounding off the corner of the breech. From the fact that all the trial-pieces have successfully endured very severe tests, it is to be inferred that the defects of the previous model arose from the presence of a cylindrical chamber, and a deficiency of metal in the prolongation of the bore. In 1860 the model proposed by Captain Rodman was adopted for all sea-coast cannon. This model is shown in the drawing; it does not differ, however in its essential particulars from the model of 1858. See Sea-coast Artillery.

COMBINATION FUZE: Combination of the time fuze and percussion fuze system. The inertia of firing caused the plunger in the fuze to strike a chemical composition, thereby igniting the powder train. The fuze was designed to act as a percussion fuze if it struck an object before the pre-set time. Examples of combination fuzes can be found on Armstrong, Schenkl, and Sawyer projectiles, among others.

COMMON SHELL: See Shell.


COMPRESSION-PROJECTILES:
The systems under this class differ in the nature and arrangement of the metal to be compressed. Solid shot, shells, and shrapnel can be used in each. A projectile of this system is composed of a cast-iron or steel body, and of a lead coating cast over and between rings projecting from the body of the projectile. Bands of lead, extending beyond the general surface, are compressed by the lands as the projectile is forced through the bore of the piece. A construction more generally used is to have the body smooth, and to attach the coating chemically; to accomplish this, the body is thoroughly cleaned, and immersed in a solution of sal-ammoniac; next it is covered with powdered sal-ammoniac, and dipped first into melted zinc and afterwards into melted tin; it is then placed in a metal mold and the lead cast upon it. The hold in the base is closed by a screw-plug, which has a ring for handling the projectile and for extracting it from the piece when necessary.

In the French system these projectiles have two bands, B and B, of copper, attached by being forced into annular undercuts as shown in the drawing. To favor the compression, triangular grooves are cut around the surface of the bands. The forward band is placed near the center of gravity of the projectile; its diameter is only about .02 inch greater than the caliber of the piece, and therefore does not assist in giving rotation, but only in centering the projectile; the accuracy of fire is thereby increased, but the velocity at the muzzle of the piece is slightly reduced. See Coated Projectiles, French Projectiles, and Projectiles.

COMPRESSIVE SYSTEM OF RIFLING: This system embraces all projectiles which are loaded in a chamber and then forced by the action of the powder through the bore of the gun, the diameter of which across the lands is less than the superior diameter of the projectile. Projectiles of this class are necessarily confined to breech-loading guns, and, as the name of their class implies, take the grooves by compression. The general character of the rifling in breech-loaders consists in a great number of shallow grooves usually narrowing toward the muzzle to make up for the slip and abrasion of the leaden jacket of the projectile. The Armstrong system of rifling for breech-loaders, formerly used in the English service, does not differ in principle from this. The rifling consists of a great number of shallow, narrow grooves (the 7-inch has 76), the object being to give the soft-metal covering a very large baring on the driving-side of the grooves, and thus prevent stripping, and make up for want of depth. See System of Rifling.

CONCUSSION FUZE: A chemical fuze designed to activate from the shock of striking an object. The chemicals were kept separate until impact when the action of the chemicals upon each other caused a flame. Examples of this type of fuze are the Confederate Broun and the Federal Tice Concussion fuze.

CONE: 1) The actual percussion system found in projectiles armed with percussion fuzes. The function of the cone was to support the percussion cap when exploded by the slider and transfer the flame to the powder system. The percussion cap sat on a nipple on one end of the cone. Also used in small arms such as muskets, rifles, and pistols. 2) The tapered rear portion of a projectile.

CONE OF DISPERSION: The cones of dispersion of projectiles comprise all the causes of error in firing, whether resulting from the arm itself, from the projectile and the resistance of the air, or from the want of practice or skill in the marksman. The causes of irregularity in firing, although greater in the horizontal than in the vertical direction, are considerable in the latter. They raise or depress the projectiles, and change the ranges to an appreciable extent. The general form of the cone of dispersion will present a curved surface, which is concave outwards; for experiment goes to prove that when a variable cause acts an infinite number of times, the variations of this cause tend to neutralize each other, and we may then assimilate its effects to those of a constant accelerating force, acting in the same manner as gravity. The separation fo the projectiles is not in proportion to the ranges, but increases more rapidly. The cone of dispersion becomes longer, with equal deviations, as the velocity of the projectiles increases; or in other words, the fire is more accurate as the velocity is increased. Ancient artillerists were aware of this principle, and in consequence employed for small-arms charges much larger than those now in general use.


CONFEDERATE PROJECTILES: The rifle-projectiles used by the Confederates in the late war belonged, with a few exceptions, to the expanding class. Fig. 1 presents a shell with a copper ring (b) fitting into a rabbet formed around its base in casting. This projectile would seem to resemble the Parrott projectile in its construction. The lower edge of the band, however, projects below the bottom the base, which in Parrott’s it does not. Recesses are formed in the sides of the rabbet to prevent the ring from turning.

The projectile represented in Fig. 2 has a thick circular plate of copper attached to its base by means of a screw-bolt at its center. To prevent it from turning around this bolt there are three pins, or dowels, fastened into the base of the projectile, and projecting into corresponding holes in the circular plate. This plate is slightly cupped, and the angle between it and the bottom of the projectile is filled with a greased cord for lubricating the bore of the gun.

Fig. 3 represents a projectile of the Blakely class, with its expanding cup of copper (a). Instead of the soft-metal studs which are placed on the forward part of the Blakely projectile, this projectile has a raised band carefully turned to fit the bore.

Fig. 4 represents a Read projectile, in which the expanding cup is made of copper, as shown at a. This cup is placed in the mold, and the body of the projectile is cast upon it. See Expanding Projectiles and Projectiles.

CONSTRUCTION: A term defined by the authors that is used to describe the interior design of a projectile.

CORED SHOT: A projectile with an empty hollow interior. The entrance hole to the empty interior was plugged with a wooded peg to keep out water. This type of shot was designed to be fired from Dahlgren smoothbores against masonry fortifications. The theory behind cored shot was that it decreased the strain on the gun and increased the velocity of the shot.

COUNTER-BATTERY: A number of guns placed behind a parapet with the primary purpose of dismounting or silencing the guns in an enemy’s work by using direct fire. This tactic was also used by field artillery.

CREMAILLERE: Also known as Indented Line. The cremaillere was made up of a number of salients and was used in simple entrenched fortifications. This position was often the target of heavy artillery bombardments.

CROW: A bar of iron used as a lever in naval gun exercises.

CURVE: That portion of the cannon tube connecting the cylinder with the chase.

CYLINDER: That portion of the bore between the base ring and trunnions, including the seat of the charge. The point of the greatest strain exerted upon the gun. This area included the reinforce.

DAHLGREN BREECH-STRAP: A strap connecting the breech with a separate trunnion-ring, in order to avoid longitudinal weakness in a gun, without disturbing the usual and convenient preponderance. The strap is made of bronze, and cast in two pieces: one piece constituting the strap, half the trunnion-ring, and the greater part of the trunnions; the other constituting the opposite half of the trunnion-ring and the remainder of the trunnions. The two parts are riveted together at the trunnions. This strap remedies another and greater defect of cast-iron guns than longitudinal weakness – the unsoundness of the casting around the trunnions.

DAHLGREN GUN: The Dahlgren guns of large caliber are made of cast-iron, solid, and cooled from the exterior. To produce uniformity in the cooling, the piece is cast nearly cylindrical, and then turned down to the required shape, which is shown in the drawing. The thickness of metal around the seat of the charge is a little more than the diameter of the bore, which rule holds good for nearly all cast iron guns. The chase, however, tapers more rapidly than in other cast-iron guns, which gives the appearance of greater thickness of metal at the reinforce. The chamber is of the Gomer form. The principal guns of this system are of 9- and 11-inch caliber. A piece of 10-inch caliber has, however, been introduced into the Navy, on Admiral Dahlgren’s plan, for firing solid shot with 40 pounds. of powder. The 15-inch and 20-inch naval guns are shaped exteriorly after the Dahlgren pattern, but are cast hollow and have the elliptical chamber of the Rodman system. The following table shows the principal dimensions, etc., of Dahlgren guns:

 

Gun.

 

Maxi-

Mum

Charge.

Weight

Of

Shot.

Weight

Of

Shell.

20-inch.

15-inch.

13-inch.

11-inch.

10-inch.

9-inch.

125-pdr..

Inch.

163

130

130

132

119 1/3

107

117

Inch.

64

48

44.7

32

29.1

22.2

33.25

Lbs.

100,000

42,000

36,000

16,000

12,000

9,200

16,500

Lbs

100.

35

40

15

12

10

40

Lbs.

60

20

16

13

Lbs.

1,080

400

280

170

125

93

125

Lbs.

330

224

130

100

70

100

See Cast-iron Guns and Ordnance.


DANA PROJECTILE:
This projectile consists of a cast-iron body having a conical base, to which is attached a cup-shaped ring of brass. Upon discharge, the ring is driven forward and upon the base, and by this movement the soft metal expanded into the grooves and rotation communicated to the projectile. As the front end of the sabot passes the shoulder it is crowded down into the groove cut round the body of the shot, and thus "clinched," as it were. The same end is sought in the arrangement at the bottom of the sabot, where the gas, acting in the cannelure, presses the lip into the groove cut in the cast-iron. Such is the provision designed to secure the sabot from stripping. Turning upon the projectile is prevented by wedge-shaped projections and recesses upon the base of the projectile and the under surface of the sabot. See Expanding Projectiles.

DEFILADING BATTERY: A battery placed on a raised parapet which offered some protection from artillery on a commanding height.

DEMOLITION OF ARTILLERY: The destruction of ordnance by artificial or other means. This is performed, if the gun is an iron one, by half filling the piece with powder, and jamming in one or two shot with stones, bits of iron, etc.; over this a complete tamping with stones and earth till the bore is filled. To break off the trunnions is not always an infallible mode of destroying ordnance, as they can still be fired from the ground. When time admits of only partially crippling guns by removing one of the trunnions, it is best done by laying the end of the trunnion on a block of wood, the blow being given by a sledge-hammer, or (if that he not at hand) by heavy shot. A gun may be destroyed by firing a shot at it behind one of the trunnions, which, if it should not break it, would render it unsafe. The first method, however, particularly if the muzzle is partly buried in the ground, will be found certain to burst the gun. To render bronze guns unserviceable, fire a shot into them from some other piece, behind the trunnions, which will prevent the possibility of their being used again. See Demolition.

DEVIATION OF FLIGHT: See Drift.


DEVIATION OF PROJECTILES:
The term deviation must be understood to mean not only the deflections, right or left, of the line of fire, but also the differences between the ranges of similar projectiles fired under like condition from the same guns. Very great irregularities occur in the paths of spherical projectiles. If a number of projectiles be fired from the same gun, with equal charges and elevations, and with gunpowder of the same quality, the gun-carriage resting upon a platform, and the piece being pointed with the greatest care before each round, very few of the projectiles will range to the same distance; and, moreover the greater part will be found to deflect considerably, unless the range be very short, to the right or left of the line in which the gun is pointed. With elongated projectiles the fire is far more accurate, but still the ranges and deflections are subject to variations of greater or less amount. The causes of the deviations of projectiles, whether fired from smooth-bore or rifled guns, and independent of inaccuracy in pointing, and variable position of the gun-carriage, are wind, variable projectile force, and rotation of the earth.

Should the wind be blowing in gusts and be changeable in direction, it is difficult to allow for it in pointing the gun; but with a steady breeze in a pretty constant direction, a few rounds will generally be sufficient to show the allowance necessary. The velocity of the wind is very low compared with that of the projectiles, but it remains usually nearly the same throughout its flight, whereas the velocity of the projectile decreases rapidly; it therefore frequently happens that the wind appears to have greater effect towards the end of the range, and it may be often noticed in practice that projectiles deviate in a rapidly increasing curved line. The wind, if strong, will greatly affect the ranges of projectiles; decreasing or increasing the range according as it may be blowing with or against the projectile. The lower the velocity of a projectile, the greater will be its deflection caused by the wind, as, for instance, upon mortar-shells, on which, having low velocities and long times of flight, the wind exercises a very disturbing influence. The greater the density of the projectile, the less will its motion, during flight, be affected by the wind; and thus shells are more influenced by wind than shot. The wind exercises a very great deflecting influence upon an elongated projectile during its flight, rendering it difficult to obtain accuracy of fire at long ranges, even from rifled guns, excepting in very calm weather. If the center of gravity be placed very near the center of the long axis, the force of the wind will be pretty evenly distributed over the whole length of the projectile. Should, however, the center of gravity be placed far in advance of or behind the center of figure, the force of the wind will press unequally upon the shot, and uncertain deflections will most probably occur.

It is impossible with our present facilities to manufacture large quantities of powder of a perfectly uniform quality; but supposing it could be accomplished, the force from a given charge would be liable to variation according to the state of the atmosphere, and the condition of the powder as affected by the time it has been in store; it will also be frequently found in practice that the charges have not been weighed out with perfect accuracy, nor the gun loaded so that the projectile is always in the same position with reference to the charge. The consequence is that very few projectiles fired from the same gun with what are called equal charges leave the bore with exactly the same initial velocity.

The deviation of a projectile caused by the rotation of the earth is a complicated problem. The principle that this rotation will impress upon the projectile a tendency, upon leaving the bore, to move with the same velocity in the same direction as the point upon the surface from which the gun is fired is readily comprehended, but not its application to some particular cases. The deviation due to this cause is too slight to be regarded in practice.

The line of sight may be improperly placed and situated out of the vertical plane, either in consequence of the construction of the gun or its carriage, or by the effect of the inclination of the plan upon which it is placed. In these two cases the line of fire maintaining a fixed and determined position in respect to the axis of the gun and the vertical plane of fire, the deviations are constant for equal distances and equal inclinations, and it becomes easy to correct them after a few trials.

The barometric state of the atmosphere may also produce an effect upon the ranges; for the greater the density and elasticity of the displaced fluid, the greater will be the retardation of the projectile.

Spherical Projectiles – The principal causes of the deviations of projectiles fired from smooth-bore guns are: 1st. Windage 2d. The imperfect form and roughness of the surface of the projectile. 3d. Eccentricity of projectiles arising from their not being homogeneous.

Windage causes irregularity in the flight of a projectile, from the fact of the elastic gas acting in the first instance on the upper portion of the projectile and driving it against the bottom of the bore. The projectile reacts at the same time that it is impelled forward by the charge, and strikes the upper surface of the bore some distance in advance, and so on, by a succession of rebounds until it leaves the bore in an accidental direction and with a rotatory motion, depending chiefly upon the position of the last impact against the bore. Thus, should the last impact against the bore. Thus, should the last impact of a concentric projectile, when fired from a gun, be on the right-hand side of the bore, as represented in Fig. 1, it will have a tendency to deflect to the left in the direction b, while at the same time a rotation will be given to it in the direction indicated by the arrows, or to the right; the effect of this rotation being to cause the projectile itself to deviate to the right during its flight, so that the deflection will not be to the left, but to the right, unless the range is very short. If the projectile leave the gun, rotating on a vertical axis, with its forward part moving from left to right – supposing the observer to be behind the piece – there will be a diminished pressure on the right side, and an increased one on the left side, which will therefore cause it to deviate to the right. If a projectile strike the bottom of the bore, the rotation of the fore-part would be from up downwards, and instead of deflecting to the right, the range would be decreased. Suppose the projectile to rotate in an opposite direction, the results would be reversed. Should it, on leaving, strike any intermediate part of the bore, a compound effect would be produced, according to the position of the point of impact. It appears from these explanations that a projectile leaving the gun, rotating on any axis except one parallel to that of the bore, will deviate according to the direction of the rotation.

Should the center of gravity of a projectile not coincide with the center of figure, it is termed eccentric, and is found to deviate according to the position of the center of gravity when the ball is placed in the bore of the gun; should the line joining the center of gravity and the center of figure of a projectile be not parallel to the axis of the bore, the charge of powder will act on a larger surface on one side of the center of gravity than on the other, so that there will be a rotation from the lighter towards the heavier side.

It is found in practice that projectiles deviate in a curved line, either to the right or to the left, the curve rapidly increasing towards the end of the range. This probably occurs from the velocity of rotation decreasing but slightly compared to the velocity of translation; or if a very strong wind is blowing steadily, across the range during the whole time of its flight, this deflecting cause being constant, while the velocity of the projectile diminishes, the curve will manifestly increase with the range; the trajectory is, therefore, a curve of double curvature, its projection on either a horizontal or vertical plane being a curved line.

From the foregoing considerations it follows that the smoother the surface of the projectiles and the less their windage and eccentricity, other things being equal, the greater will be their accuracy. Experiments show that the preponderating side should be put next the charge, and the line joining the center of gravity and the center of figure should be parallel to the axis of the bore. The position of the preponderating side is found by floating the projectile in a bath of mercury, and the degree of promptness with which an eccentric shot, floated as above, assumes the position due to its preponderance is regarded as the measure of the preponderance.

Elongated Projectiles – If the projectile comes out of the gun perfectly centered, that is, rotating round its longest axis, and having that axis coincident with the line of flight, there will be no tendency, either of the axis rotation or of the projectile itself, to deflect, so long as the motion is in a straight line, because the resistance of the air will act uniformly all around. As soon, however, as the trajectory has begun to curve downwards under the influence of gravity, the resistance of the air acts more on the under side than on the upper, and effects will be produced depending on the resultant direction of the resistance of the air in relation to the center of gravity. Practically, the path of the projectile is found to result in a deviation increasing uniformly with the distance from the gun, and depending, as to its direction, on the first application. If the deflecting force act on the projectile in a vertical direction upwards, the horizontal projection of, the line of flight will be a line deviating to the right or left of the plane of fire, according as the twist is right-or left-handed. If the deflecting force act in the opposite direction, the projectile will be deflected to the left or right, according as the twist is right or left; and whatever be the direction of the deflecting force, the deviation will be a uniformly increasing one at right angles to it.

These effects may be illustrated experimentally by means of a gyroscope provided with a small elongated projectile instead of the disk used for ordinary experiments. The projectile must be made with the greatest care, so that its center of gravity coincided exactly with that of the two rings within which it is placed; the rings are so arranged that one can turn round a vertical axis, and the other round a horizontal axis, the projectile being therefore free to turn in any direction. A cylindrical portion of metal extends beyond the base of the projectile, in prolongation of its longer axis, round which the string is wound to give the required rotatory motion. As the projectile in the gyroscope has no motion of translation, a strong current of air must be directed upon it, so as to represent the resistance of the atmosphere to a projectile moving with a high velocity. The diameter of the nozzle of the blower should be equal to, or rather larger than, that of the projectile, and the center of the blast should be directed below the point of the projectile.

The line of flight is not absolutely a straight line, but becomes a curve of double curvature; and if projected on a vertical plane at right angles to the plane of fire, would consist of a series of cycloidal curves, were the time of flight sufficiently great, increasing the distance of the projectile from the plane of fire by the length of one of them at each revolution. The length of these curves depends upon the amount of the deflecting force, and their number is equal to the number of revolutions made by the projectile in its flight.

When elongated projectile is fired from a rifled gun, it leaves the bore rotating rapidly round its longer axis; and if the initial velocity were very low, the projectile experiencing but slight resistance from the atmosphere, the larger axis would remain (as in vacuo) during the whole time of flight parallel or nearly so to its primary direction, as shown in Fig. 2. While explaining the effect produced by the resistance of the air upon an elongated projectile moving with a high velocity, the projectile will be supposed to have what is termed a right-handed rotation; that is, the upper part turns from left to right, with reference to an observer placed behind the gun: for the direction of the grooves of rifled pieces is almost invariably so as to give such rotation. After the projectile has left the bore, the resultant of the resistance of the air will, unless the center of gravity be very far forward, act upon a point in front of the center of gravity and below the longer axis, at all angles of elevation given in practical gunnery. The effect produced by this pressure will depend chiefly upon the form of the head of the projectile; therefore let us in the first place consider the effect upon a conoidal head.

Of course the longer axis of an elongated projectile does not remain, during flight, continually a tangent to the trajectory, unless the center of gravity, as in an arrow or rocket, is very near the face-end; yet, practically, on account of the drooping of the point, the longer axis may throughout a considerable portion of the time of flight approximate very nearly to a tangent to the trajectory. The effects on targets furnish most satisfactory evidence of this; it is almost invariably found that the holes made in targets are circular, even when elongated projectiles descend at considerable angles. The most probable explanation of this fact must evidently be that the point of the projectile has dropped during flight, so that, on striking, the longer axis is nearly perpendicular to the plane of the target.

This drooping of the point is of importance; for did the axis remain parallel during flight to its primary direction, the projectile would most probably, when fired at any but a very low angle, on striking an object of hard material and solid structure, turn up against it lengthways, and therefore produce but trifling effect. This has not, however, been found to take place in practice; but on the contrary the penetration of elongated projectiles at considerable ranges is always remarkably great. There is little fear of the projectile turning up against an object unless the velocity of translation and rotation be very low, and the angle of fire very high.

It is found in practice that conoidal-headed projectiles fired from rifled guns giving a right-handed rotation always deviate to the right; and in the few cases tried with guns giving left-handed rotation the deviation is to the left; with flat-headed projectiles these deviations are reversed. This peculiar deviation is called drift, and is generally constant for the same ranges; so that it can be allowed for in pointing the gun, by using a horizontal slide graduated an attached to the tangent scale, or by inclining the tangent scale to the left.

DISABLING CANNON: If necessary to abandon materiel, it must be disabled or destroyed, so as to be useless to the enemy. Guns are permanently disabled by bursting, bending the chase, breaking off the trunnions, or by scoring the surface of the bore; they are temporarily disabled by spiking, breaking off the sights and the seat for the hausse, or in breech-loaders by carrying off or permanently destroying the breech-blocks, etc.

To burst a cast-iron gun, load with a heavy charge, fill the bore with sand or shot, and fire at a high elevation. To bend the chase of a bronze gun, fire a shotted piece against another, muzzle to muzzle or muzzle to chase; or kindle a fire under the chase and strike on it with a sledge-hammer. To break off a trunnion of a cast-iron cannon, strike on it with a heavy hammer or fire a shotted gun against it. To score the surface of the bore and injure the rifling, cause shells to burst in the gun or fire broken shot from it with high charges.

To spike a gun, drive into the vent a jagged and hardened steel spike with a soft point, break it off flush with the vent-field, and clinch it in the bore with the rammer; a nail without a head, a piece of ramrod, or even a plug of hard wood may be used in the absence of a spike. To prevent the spike from being blown out, make a projectile fast in the bottom of the bore by wrapping it with cloth or felt, or by means of iron wedges driven in with a rammer or with an easily burnt out by a charcoal-fire lighted with a pair of bellows.

When it is expected to retake a gun, use a spring spike with a shoulder to prevent its coming out too readily. Mitrailleurs are permanently disabled by bending the barrels, etc.; they are made temporarily useless by removing the crank-handles, locks, etc. Carriages are destroyed by piling them up and burning them; to prevent them from moving, the spokes and poles may be cut or sawed off. Ammunition-chests are blown up or water is poured over their contents. Implements are carried off or destroyed.

To unspike a gun, try to drive the spike into the bore with a punch; if there be a shot wedged in the bore, expel it by powder inserted through the vent. When it is impossible to drive down the spike into the bore with a punch; if there be a shot wedged in the bore, expel it by powder inserted through the vent. When it is impossible to drive down the spike, if the bore be unobstructed, insert a charge of one third the weight of the projectile, and ram down junk wads with a handspike, first placing on the bottom of the bore a strip of wood with a groove on the lower side containing a strand of quick-match by which the charge is ignited; this plan will not answer when the spike is screwed or riveted into the vent. In a bronze gun, remove some of the metal at the upper orifice of the vent, and pour sulphuric acid into the cavity before firing. Should the preceding methods fail, after several trials, drill out the spike, or drill a new vent if the gun be iron; if it be bronze, unscrew the vent-piece.

To drive out a shot wedged in the bore, unscrew the vent-piece, if there be one, and drive in wedges so as to start the shot forward, then ram it back again, and with a hook withdraw the wedges that may have held it; or pour in powder and fire it after replacing the vent-piece. As a last resort, bore a hole in the bottom of the breech, drive out the shot, and stop the hole with a screw. See Spike and Unspike.

DISMOUNT: The removal of a gun from its carriage either by intention or by shot, thus rendering it unfit for service.

DISPART: Half the difference of a gun’s diameter, measured at the muzzle and the base ring.

DOLPHINS: Two handles placed over the center of gravity of the piece in order to assist in mounting or dismounting the piece. In the heavy seacoast mortars a clevis was attached to a projection on the piece rather than handles. In earlier weapons these handles were ornamental and cast to represent dolphins, which gave them their name.

DRAG ROPE: Device used by artillerists to drag pieces and to extricate carriages from different positions. It consisted of a 4-inch hemp rope with a wooden thimble attached to each end. A hook was secured to one thimble and six oak or ash handles were put in between the strands of the rope and secured. The handles provided a secure grip for the men pulling the rope.

DREDGING BOX: A sheet copper box used to sprinkle mealed powder over the fuzes of mortar shells after the shell had been placed in the mortar. This made the fuzes more certain of taking fire. The box had a top fitted over it and pierced with holes to allow the escape of the powder.

DRIFT: The movement of rifled projectiles, either to the right or left, while in flight. The direction of the drift was dictated by the curvature of the grooves in the upper side of the bore rifling. If the grooves curved to the right, the projectile drifted to the right. If curved to the left, the drift was to the left. Deviations of smoothbore spherical projectiles were caused by windage, imperfect form and roughness of the surface, and the lack of uniformity in casting.

EARS: Also called Tong Holes. These were indentations found on mortar projectiles and some spherical smoothbore projectiles. The purpose of the ears was to aid in loading and aligning the projectile so the fuze was in the center of the bore of the mortar.

EARTHWORKS: See Field Works.

ECHINUS: See Molding.

EFFECTS OF PROJECTILES: A knowledge of the destructive effects of projectiles on iron, wood, earth, and masonry, the materials of which covering masses are made, is of very great importance in a military point of view. In general, these effects, and particularly that of penetration, depend on the nature of the projectile, its initial velocity, and the distance of the object. The following deductions have been made from trials with armor-plates, extending over several years: 1st. The best material to resist projectiles is soft, tough wrought-iron; and to attain these qualities it should be pure – free from sulphur, phosphorus, and carbon. Steely iron, commonly known as homogenous iron, puddled steel, etc., when in large masses, is easily cracked by shot, and is not, therefore, suitable for armor-plates. Thin plates afford a greater comparative resistance. Soft steel may be used for armor-plates; but when cost is taken into consideration it is doubtful if it possesses any advantages over wrought-iron. 2d. Rolled iron does not offer quite so much resistance as hammered iron, yet if the size of the plate admit of it, it is to be preferred on the score of economy. Plates should be as large as possible to reduce the number of joints, which are lines of weakness. 3d. A solid plate offers, for the same thickness, a greater resistance to a projectile than a laminated one, or one made up of several thinner plates; but when the surface is rounded in shape and of small extent, as in the Monitor turrets, the latter may be used to great advantage, as great thickness of metal may thereby be easily obtained. 4th. The resistance of a plate to perforation is very much increased by a suitable backing. Cast-iron, granite, and brick in masses, while they enable a plate to offer a very great resistance, are soon broken up by the blows of heavy projectiles, and their fragments thrown off with great force. Oak and teak are the most suitable timbers for backing plates, and are used as such on vessels. A yielding backing is found to occasion less strain on the fastenings than a very hard one. 5th. Where projectiles are made of the same material and are similar in shape, their penetration into unbacked plates is nearly in proportion to their living force, or their weight multiplied by the square of the velocity of impact. The resistance which an unbacked plate offers to penetration is nearly in proportion to the square of its thickness, provided this thickness be confined within ordinary limits. In the case of oblique plates the penetration diminishes nearly with the sine of the angle of incidence. 6th. The most suitable material for shells to be used against iron plates is tempered steel. These projectiles should be made of cylindrical shape, with thick sides and bottom, to direct the explosive effect of the charge forward after penetration if effected. The most suitable material for solid shot is hard and tough cast-iron. Round shells made of cast-iron will be broken in passing through an inch plate, and an ordinary cast-iron shot will be broken in passing through a two-inch plate. Late experience shows that the pointed, or ogival, is better than the flat form of head for penetration of iron plates. 7th. It follows from the preceding that the most suitable covering or shield for cannon is a conical-shaped turret made of wrought-iron plates, as large as it is practicable to make them, backed with oak or teak. To protect the gunners from the fragments of projectiles which may penetrate completely through this covering, there should be an "inner skin" of thick boiler-plate placed behind the wood.

Effect on Wood – The effect of a projectile fired against wood varies with the nature of the wood and the direction of the penetration. If the projectile strike perpendicular to the fibers, and the fibers be tough and elastic, as in the case of oak, a portion of them are crushed, and others are bent under the pressure of the projectile, but regain their form as soon as it has passed by them. It is found that a hole make in oak by a ball 4 inches in diameter closes up again, so as to leave an opening scarcely large enough to measure the depth of penetration. The size of the hole and the shattering effect increases rapidly for the larger calibers. A 9-inch projectile has been found to leave a hole that does not close up, and to tear away large fragments from the back portion of an oak target representing the side of a ship of war, the effect of which on a vessel would have been to injure the crew stationed around, or if the hole had been situated at or below the water-line, to have endangered the vessel. If penetration take place in the direction of the fibers, the piece is almost always split, even by the smallest host, and splinters are thrown to a considerable distance. In consequence of the softness of white pine nearly all the fibers struck are broken, and the orifice is nearly the size of the projectile; for the same reason the effects of the projectile do not extend much beyond the orifice; pine is therefore to be preferred to oak for structures that are not intended to resist cannon-projectiles, as blockhouses, etc.

Effect on Earth – Earth possesses advantages over all other materials as a covering against projectiles; it is cheap and easily obtained, it offers considerable resistance to penetration, and to a certain extent regains its position after displacement. It is found by experience that a projectile has very little effect on an earthen parapet unless it passes completely through it, and that injury done by day can be promptly repaired at night. Wherever masonry is liable to be breached, it should be masked by earthworks with natural slopes. The size of the openings formed by the passage of a projectile into earth is about one third larger than the projectile, increasing, however, towards the outer orifice. Rifle-projectiles are easily deflected from their course in earth. They are sometimes found lying in a position at right angles to their course, and sometimes with the base to the front; hence their penetration is variable. Unless a shell be very large in proportion to the mass of earth penetrated, its explosion will produce but little displacement; generally a small opening is formed around an exploded shell by the action of the gas in pressing back the earth. Experience at Fort Wagner showed that it took one pound of metal to permanently displace 3.27 pounds. of the sand of which the fort was made. Time-fuzes, being liable to be extinguished by the pressure of the earth, are inferior to percussion-fuzes, which produce explosion when the projectile has made about three fourths of its proper penetration. The penetration in earth of the oblong compared to round projectiles, when fired with the service-charges and at a distance of about 400 yards, is at least one fourth greater. This difference, however, is less at short and greater at long distances. The penetration of the smallest: or 3-inch, cannon-projectile, at a distance of 400 yards, in a newly made parapet of loam mixed with gravel, is about 6 feet. The 100-pdr. Projectile, under similar circumstances, penetrates about 16 feet. A penetration as great as 31 feet has been obtained at the Washington Navy Yard by firing a 12-inch rifle-projectile into a natural clay-bank at a short distance. The greatest penetration of a 15-inch solid shot, fired with 50 pounds. of powder, in well-rammed sand, at a distance of 400 yards, is 20 feet.

Effect on Masonry – The effect of a projectile against masonry is to form a truncated conical hole, terminated by another of a cylindrical form, as shown in the drawing. The material in front of and around the projectile is broken and shattered, and the end of the cylindrical hole even reduced to powder. Pieces of the masonry are sometimes thrown 50 or 60 yards from the wall. The elasticity developed by the shock reacts upon the projectile, sometimes throwing it back 150 yards, so as to be dangers to persons in a breaching-battery. The exterior opening varies from 4 to 5 times the diameter of the projectile, and the depth, as we have seen, varies with the size and density of the projectile and its velocity. With charges of , 1/3, , and 1/6, a projectile ceases to rebound from a wall of masonry when the angles formed by the line of fire and the surface of the wall exceed 20, 24, 33, 43 degrees, respectively. With these angles, the angle of reflection is much greater than the angle of incidence, and the velocity after impact is very slight. When a projectile strikes against a surface of oak, as the side of a ship, it will not stick if the angle of incidence be less than 15 degrees, and if it does not penetrate to a depth nearly equal to its diameter. Solid cast-iron shot break against granite, but not against freestone or brick. Shells are broken into small fragments against each of these materials.

Effect of Bullets – The penetration of the new breech-loading rifle-musket bullet in a target made of pine boards one inch thick is as follows: at 100 yards, 13 inches; at 500 yards, 9 inches. If bullets are hardened by the addition of a little tin or antimony to the lead, their penetration is very much increased. From the experiments made in Denmark, the following relations were found between the penetration of a bullet in pine and its effects on the body of a living horse, viz.: 1st When the force of the bullet is sufficient to penetrate .31 inch into pine, it is only sufficient to produce a slight contusion of the skin; 2d. When the force of penetration is equal to .63 inch, the wound begins to be dangerous, but does not disable; 3d. When the force of penetration is equal to 1.2 inch, the wound is very dangers. A plate of wrought-iron three sixteenths of an inch thick is sufficient to resist a rifle-musket bullet at distances varying from 20 to 200 yards. That a rope mantlet may give full protection against rifle-musket bullets, it should be composed of five layers (three vertical and two horizontal) of 4 inch rope. See Breaching, Projectiles, Punching, and Racking.

ELEVATING ARC: Graduated into degrees and parts of a degree, this device was attached to the rear part of the cheek of a gun carriage. The axis of the piece was placed horizontal and the breech was marked at any one of the divisions on the arc. The required elevation or depression of the piece was noted by the number of degrees above or below this mark. When not in use it was placed inside the cheek to which it was attached.

ELEVATING SCREW: Threaded metal cylinder with a four pronged handle attached to one end. The other end was screwed into the bottom of the breech. The gunner would use this screw to elevate or depress the tube.

ELEVATION: The vertical angle which the axis of a gun or mortar made with the horizon.

ELONGATED PROJECTILE: Also known as rifled ordnance, the elongated projectile had a length of two to three calibers of the bore and was fitted with a sabot or had a bore-shaped body. This caused the projectile to have greater accuracy in flight and increased range over spherical projectiles. The length varied among the different projectiles for the same gun. Rotary motion around the long axis of the projectile in a rifled bore was obtained from the sabot, usually located at the base. Bore-shaped projectiles, such as the Whitworth, did not require a sabot since the twist needed was supplied by the body. Elongated spherical projectiles were occasionally manufactured for smoothbore guns. A projectile, fitted with a sabot or bore-shaped body, with a length of two to three calibers of the bore of the gun, attained a greater accuracy of flight and increased range over spherical projectiles.

ELONGATED PROJECTILES: The great improvements which have been made of late, in the accuracy and range of cannon, consist simply in the use of the elongated instead of the spherical form of projectile. To attain accuracy of flight and increase of range with an elongated projectile, it is necessary that it should move through the air in the direction of its length. Experience seems to show that the only sure method of effecting this is to give it a rapid rotary motion around its long axis by the grooves of the rifles. The length necessarily varies in the different descriptions of projectiles for the same gun, inasmuch as it is to some extent subordinate to the consideration of bringing them all, with certain exceptions, to the same weight; but experiments go to prove that a length of two calibers at least is necessary for very accurate firing, and it is desirable for good vis viva, or destructive effect on impact at any but very short ranges, to have the weight great in proportion to the caliber, or, in fact, to the surface of resistance, and of course this is favored by an increased length of projectile. As a rule, the best length for accurate firing with any ordinary twist has been found to be from two to three calibers.

The form of head is governed by two considerations, flight and penetration. The latter gives different forms in different instances. The question of flight affects all equally, and on this many experiments have been made, which have resulted in the general adoption of what is termed an ogival head, or figure generated by the revolution of an ogival or pointed arch about its axis. It has been found that the total pressure on a nine-inch spherical projectile, moving with a velocity of 1150 feet per second, is about 555 pounds. ANBM representing the spherical nine-inch projectile, and the total pressure on a hemispherical-headed, elongated projectile of the same diameter represented by ACDBM, and moving with the same velocity, is 487 pounds, thus showing a difference of 68 pounds. Total pressure. Now supposing the elongated projectile to move steadily, point first, the pressure on the respective heads, A, M, B, must be the same; therefore the difference of the total pressure, viz., 68 pounds, must be due to the difference of minus pressure on the bases ANB, ACDB respectively, thus showing that the form of base of a projectile materially influences the total pressure which it meets with when moving through the air at a high velocity. The total pressure on an ordinary ogival-headed projectile of 9 inches diameter, represented by ACDBM, is only 389 pounds, thus showing the great difference of pressure, viz., 166 pounds, on an elongated ogilval-headed projectile and a spherical projectile of the same diameter when moving at the same velocity through the air. Another great advantage which the elongated projectile possesses over the spherical is that, for the same caliber, the momentum of the former is much greater, varying, of course, in proportion to their respective weights, which would be nearly three to one, depending on the length of the elongated projectile. Piobert says that the figure experiencing the least resistance from the air has a length five times its greatest diameter, with its largest section placed 2/5 of the length from the hind part. The shapes of some of the Whitworth projectiles approach more nearly to this form than those of any elongated projectiles hitherto uses. See Projectiles.

ELSWICK GUN-WORKS: The Elswick Works of Sir William Armstrong, at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, have produced the largest constructions in England of their well-known type, and from which sprang the modified form known as the Woolwich gun. We cannot here attempt to give a description of the Works in any general sense, but merely to notice a few features such as characterize them, or should be noticed by visitors to Elswick, especially engineers. We suppose the works to be traversed in the order adopted, as far as we understand on the last Public Day.

Commencing at the northeast corner of the Works, the first objects of interest are the 6-inch and 40-ton breech-loading gun mounted in barbette. It is well to observe the system in action and the cover afforded to the detachment. Close to these guns is a shrinking-pit for ordnance from the 100-ton gun downwards, also nineteen gas-producers for furnaces. The shops then may be taken in the following order.

Coiling – The largest section of bar has been 12 to 10 inches; length of coiling-furnace, 180 feet; gas-furnace for heating barrels, also for tempering, with an oil-well 50 feet deep, over which stands a hydraulic hoist.

Forge – The large hammer here, made by Thwaites & Carbutt, Bradford, has a 48-inch cylinder and 12 feet stroke; weight of piston and hammer-head, 35 tons. Blast smelting-furnaces, one furnace building, two in work, and running from 900 to 1000 tons a week, chiefly no. 1, 2, and 3 pig, made from Spanish and Elba ores, most of it sold for steel-making. The blast is at present heated by horseshoe pipes, but Cowper’s heating-stoves are in course of erection; temperature of blast, from 750 degrees to 800 degrees – about the melting-point of zinc. The engine for the furnaces is made by the firm.

Carriage-shed – There are band-saws cutting iron which may be noticed, and Albini carriage on short recoil and self-running-up system.

Projectile-store – Containing the finished projectiles. These are chiefly made with bands only up to full diameter, which saves work, and leaves to the projectile the strength of the uninjured skin of the casting. The Palliser chilled projectiles will be generally found with sharp-pointed heads struck with two diameters ogival.

Foundry – Containing the ten cupola-furnaces, of which four are generally in work. Forty tons is about the maximum weight of casting made in the foundry – a much larger one, such as the bed of the steam-hammer, weighing 137 tons, being cast on its own ground. The system of hydraulic cranes should be noticed. They are fixed so as to work in pairs, or three together, for heavy work.

Engines – Near this are the engines for the East Works, and also those for the West Ordnance-works. Horizontal double Corliss engines are employed, with four boilers three working at a time. Juke’s bars and system of stoking is applied to all. The Jetty may probably be conveniently visited next, near which are more horizontal engines, 100 horse-power, working on the accumulators; the water-pressure maintained is about 700 pounds per square inch. Five or six locomotives are generally employed in the works. On the east end of the jetty are two fixed hydraulic cranes for lifting 5 tons and 30 hundred-weight; and between them large hydraulic shears, made by Day & Summers, worked by a direct-acting hydraulic cylinder, 40 feet stroke, lifting 120 tons. The bag-leg moves so as to bring the lifting-cylinder about 30 feet out, 15 feet inboard of a vessel. The foot is moved by a screw 50 feet long, with hydraulic engine and gear, with three different powers. Along the jetty run pipes with hydrants from 18 to 36 feet apart, on which work five movable cranes, each lifting about 30 hundred weight, being placed in position to suit the holds of the vessels by means of telescope-tubes attached to the nearest hydrants.

The finishing-shop may be taken next in order. The proportions of new-type guns should be noticed also; the breech-loading fittings, and apparatus for firing by electricity and also mechanically. One shop is for small machine-work, completing Gatling machine-guns, hydraulic valves, etc. Another contains planing-machines, etc. Others are constructed for turning, finishing, and boring work, commencing on the solid ingot. At the east end guns are bored vertically in a pit 23 feet deep. The finest lathe is one of Whitworth’s for turning, boring, screw-cutting, and rifling, taking a job 44 feet in length, 36-inch centers. There is also a convenient one made by Fairbairn, Kennedy & Naylor, modified at Elswick, taking a chuck job 20 feet in diameter, 4 feet 6 inches long, or a job 34 feet long and 8 feet in diameter. It is fitted with slide-rests on independent beds. There are also chambering and rifling machines. In another shop, crank-shaft and gun work, coil-welding, etc., are performed. The steam-hammers, from 24 tons to 15 hundredweight, are chiefly Morrison’s make. There is a great variety of small machinery, for turning and boring out short coils; also a large endless band-saw, 1 inch wide, which cuts directly through iron cylindrical work about 16 inches in diameter. Its speed is from 76 feet to 129 feet per minute.

It will be seen that the facilities of these works are ample in every respect for ordnance-constructions; and when we come to consider the decidedly advanced progress in the adaptation of steel in its strongest form – ribboned – in gun-constructions of light weight combined with great power, it must be admitted that in the pure question of the building up of guns to resist the drafts upon them, especially by tangential strains, far beyond standard limits in England, Sir William Armstrong & Co. are farthest advanced as the pioneers in Great Britain of a system destined, probably, to solve in the most satisfactory manner the problem of all heavy gun-construction, in the present state of the art, in producing the metals deemed most suitable for making sound and reliable ordnance.

 

EMBRASURE: Opening cut through the parapet to allow the artillery to command a certain extent of the surrounding country.

ENDURANCE OF GUNS: The principal injuries caused by service are internal, arising from the separate action of the powder and the projectile. They increase in extent with the caliber, whatever may be the nature of the gun, but are modified by the material of which it is made. The injured from the powder generally occur in rear of the projectile. They are: 1st. Enlargement of that portion of the bore which contains the powder, arising from the compression of the metal. This injury is more marked when a sabot or wad is placed between the powder and the projectile, and is greatest in a vertical direction. 2d. Cavities produced by the melting away of a portion of the metal by the heat of combustion of the charge. 3d. Cracks arising from the tearing asunder of the particles of the metal at the surface of the bore. At fist a crack of this kind is scarcely perceptible, but it is increased by continued firing until it extends completely through the side of the piece. It generally commences at the junction of the chamber with the bore, as this portion is less supported than the others. 4th. Furrows or scoring produced by the erosive action of the inflamed gases. This injury is most apparent where the current of the gas is most rapid, or at the interior orifice of the vent, and on the surface of the bore, immediately over the seat of the projectile. Scoring commences very early in large guns; at first it is only a mere roughness, which gradually increases in depth and forms lines along the bore; but it is not until a gun has been fired very considerably that it becomes of importance.

The impressions of deep scoring resemble the bark of an old elm-tree, the metal being eaten away into irregular furrows and ridges. Even when it has reached this extreme case, however, scoring has not caused the destruction of the gun, though in some instances, acting like a wedge, it has split the bore at that part. Some experimental guns, excessively scored on the upper side of the bore, have been turned over, vented and sighted on the under side; but this has not been found necessary until the gun has been used more than is probable under ordinary circumstances.

The injuries arising from the action of the projectile occur around the projectile and in front of it. They are: 1st. Indention in the lower side of the bore, produced by the pressure on the projectile by the escape of gas through the windage, before the ball has moved from its seat. The elasticity of the metal, and the burr, or crowding up of the metal in front of the projectile, cause it to rebound, and, being carried forward by the force of the charge, to strike against the upper side of the bore, a short distance in front of the trunnions. From this it is reflected against the bottom, and again reflected against the top of the bore, and so on until it leaves the piece. The first is called "indentation," and the others are called "enlargements." In pieces of ordinary length there are generally three enlargements when this injury first makes its appearance, but their number is increased as the "indentation" is depressed and the angle of incidence increased. The effect of this bounding motion is alternately to raise and depress the piece in its trunnion-holes, and to diminish the accuracy of fire, until finally the piece becomes unfit for service. It is principally from this injury that bronze guns become unserviceable. Mortars and howitzers are not much affected by it. The principal means used to prevent this injury are to wrap the projectile with cloth or paper, and to shift the seat of the projectile. The latter may be done by a wad or lengthened sabot, or by reducing the diameter and increasing the length of the cartridge. The last of these methods is considered the more practical as well as the more effective; and it has the additional advantage of decreasing the strain on the bore, by increasing the space in which the charge expands before the ball is moved. 2d. Scratches or furrows made upon the surface of the bore by rough projectiles, or by case-shot. 3d. Cuts made by the fragments of projectiles which break in the bore. 4th. Wearing away of the lands of rifled cannon, especially at the driving-edges. A little rubbing of the side of the grooves from the friction of hard bearings is of little importance. 5th. Enlargement of the muzzle, arising from the forcing outward of the metal by the striking of the projectile against the side of the bore as it leaves the piece. By this action the shape of the muzzle is elongated in a vertical direction. 6th. Cracks on the exterior. These are formed by the compression of the metal within, generally at the chase, where the metal is thinnest. This portion of a bronze gun is the first to give way by long firing, whereas cast-iron guns usually burst in rear of the trunnions, and the fracture passes through the vent, if it be much enlarged.

The endurance of a smooth-bore gun with service-charges may be surely predicted by observation of the progressive wear of the interior orifice of the vent. There are certain general forms in which this enlargement takes place. They may be classed as triangular, lozenge, quadrilateral, star circular, and elliptic. With the lateral vent of the Dahlgren system it usually takes the lozenge form, the cracks extending from the opposite angles lengthwise of the bore. With those rifled cannon in which the vent is bouched, the cracks appear around the bouching, and although the bouching preserves the vent, yet the formation of fissures around the enlarged orifice, when once commenced, causes a greater tendency to rupture. With the vent not bouched, the wear in rifled cannon is about double that of the smooth-bore. So long as the wear of the vent is regular and without cracks, a mere enlargement is not indicative of danger; but when it reaches a diameter of four tenths of an inch, the vent should be closed and a new one opened. A gun of large caliber should not in service be expected to stand more than 400 or 500 rounds before it will be necessary to open the new vent, which, however, will be of no advantage unless the old one be closed at its interior orifice, on which the gases otherwise would continue to act as a wedge. The first distinct appearance of the cracks, as shown by the button, is the proper limit. After the gun bursts, a sketch or draught is made showing the lines of fracture, and specimens are reserved for trail of density and tensile strength; and if practicable, a photograph is taken. See Cannon and Ordnance.

ENFILADE: A military term applied to a fire of musketry or artillery made in the direction of the length of a line of troops or a line of rampart. A besieging battery so placed as to send its shot along any part of the line of a fortification, and inside the parapet, does great execution in dismounting the guns which thus present the largest surface to the balls. Hence the lines of ramparts should be planned that their prolongations may fall in situations inaccessible to the enemy. Where this is not possible, the lines are either broken, or are protected by bonnets, or by traverses or blindages. In the siege of a fortress the trenches of approach are cut in a zigzag to prevent the defenders enfilading them from the walls.

ENFILADING BATTERY: Enfilading and counter batteries are used for destroying the artillery and traverses, and silencing the fire of the defenses. Positions are chosen for the enfilading-batteries from which the terre-pleins of the faces, and other lines that bear upon the ground on which the parallels and approaches are laid out, can be swept throughout; the counter batteries are so placed that they can bring a direct or a slant fire against the embrasures of the points to be silenced. The shot from the former is thrown with small charges, under small angles of elevation, so as to ricochet along the terre-pleins, taking the guns of the defenses in flank; the latter fire with full charges directly against the point to be attained. As the effects of both direct and enfilading fire vary greatly with the range, positions should be chosen for these batteries as near the defenses as they can be thrown up without too great a sacrifice of life. Positions which will give ranges between 300 and 700 yards are the best for smooth-bore guns; nearer than 300 yards the workmen would be exposed both to the fire of musketry and case-shot; beyond 700 yards the fire upon the defenses becomes very uncertain.

The greater range of rifled guns gives to the besiegers a greatly enlarged zone in the choice of positions for enfilading and counter batteries over that for the ordinary siege-train of smooth-bore guns. This greater range and the greater certainty of the fire of rifled guns are more favorable to counter-batteries than to those intended for enfilading; as the great angles of elevation under which the guns are fired, to attain the desired ranges, give to the projectile, in the descending branch of its trajectory, a great plunge, which, although more favorable to attaining objects covered by traverses than if the plunge were smaller, is less favorable to the ricochet of the projectile from which the chief advantage of enfilading with round shot is derived. Besides this, the elongated projectiles used in rifled guns from the form given to their point are readily deflected from their course by very slight obstacles, as a fascine even, which also adds to the uncertainty of their effects. At the siege of Fort Wagner it was observed that the heavy projectiles of the smooth-bore navy guns were landed with more accuracy within the enemy’s works, and were more destructive to their ricochet, than the projectiles from the army rifled guns.

The judgment and experience of the officer must in these cases be left full play in the selection of the position of the batteries of these two classes of guns and in their armament; bearing always in mind two very important considerations: first, that with long ranges and high angles of elevation the projectiles will clear all the trenches in front up to a near approach of the besieged work without danger to them, except from unforeseen accidents; and second, that to secure any decided or certain effect from either class of these batteries there must be nothing to obstruct the view of the object to be attained. The batteries may be placed either within the parallels, in advance of, or in rear of them. The positions usually selected are from 20 to 30 yards in front of the parallels; because, if placed within them, there might be mutual interference between the service of the batteries and that of the parallels, which is often a very serious cause of delay to both the service of the batteries and the passage of troops; and, unless placed some distance in the rear of it, the parapet of the parallel might obstruct the shot of the battery, and the troops in the trench be annoyed by the fire.

The most effective positions for batteries of smooth-bore guns are in front of the second parallel of from 300 to 400 yards from the point to be reached; and unless the fire of the defenses is very destructive, it will be best to place them there. If placed in front of the first parallel it may be necessary to shift the most of them to the front of the second parallel soon after the latter is thrown up; for the third parallel and the approaches leading to it from the second parallel run the risk of being attained by shot from batteries at so great a distance in their rear as the first parallel. See Batteries and Counter-battery.

EPAULEMENT: Elevation constructed in order to protect troops and batteries from the fire of the enemy. It was usually composed of gabions filled with earth, or sand bags. In permanent fortifications, the epaulement was considered to be the low stone wall constructed at the top of the rampart.

EPROUVETTE: A small light mortar for testing the projectile force of gunpowder by observing its effects when used in the same quantities as would be used in the field.


EXPANDING PROJECTILES:
Projectiles of this class are forced to take the grooves by the action of the charge of powder, and require no other precaution in loading than spherical shell. It is essential, however, that the base-ring of every rifle-projectile, especially the Parrott, shall be greased before entering it into the gun, to prevent the formation of a hard deposit in the grooves. Parrott’s projectile is composed of a cast-iron body and brass ring cast into a rabbet formed around its base. The ring is from 1 inch to 1 inch in width, and about 1 inch in maximum depth. The gas presses against the bottom of the ring and underneath it, so as to expand it into the grooves of the gun. To prevent the ring from turning in the rabbet, the latter is recessed at several points of its circumference, like the teeth of gearing. The diameter of the rabbet is greatest at the extreme rear of the shot, so that the brass ring cannot fly off without breaking. The entire projectile is slightly smaller than the bore, so as to be easily rammed home. The projectile has a slight groove turned out of the iron of the base to permit the powder gases to enter and expand the ring. The use of a little grease or other lubricating material on the base of the projectile, before firing, is advantageous. Parrott’s shot for iron-clad fighting, as shown in the drawing, is entirely of cast-iron, but is reduced and chilled at the end, which prevents its mashing like strong soft cast-iron.

The new Parrott projectile differs from that just described in that the base is separated from the expanding ring by a cannelure which render its taking the grooves more certain. Those for the 60-pounder and under have one hole for the core-stem, which becomes the fuze-hole. The larger projectiles have a hole in each end in consequence of the necessity of using two core-stems to steady the core. The battering-shell have but one hole in rear which serves as a loading-hole; the hole in rear is closed by a screw-plug. The Hotchkiss projectile is composed of three parts: the body, the expanding ring of lead, and the cast-iron cup. The action of the charge is to crowd the cup against the soft-metal ring, thereby expanding it into the rifling of the gun. The time-fuze projectile has deep longitudinal grooves cut on its sides to allow the flame to pass over and ignite the fuze. The last rifle-projectile submitted by Mr. Hotchkiss has an expanding cup of grass attached to its base in a very peculiar manner. The cup is divided into four parts by thin projections on the base of the projectile. This arrangement is intended to facilitate the expansion of the cup and to allow the flame to pass over to ignite the fuze.

The Butler shell also belongs to this class, and differs from the mode of attaching the expanding ring and in the position of the cannelure. The expanding ring is screwed on to the base, in such a manner that the rotary motion screws in tighter; the rear part is divided by the cannelure into two lips, so that the gases are distributed evenly and the entrance of the gas between the ring and the body of the projectile is prevented; the grip of the inner lip on the projectile being also increased by the wedging action of the gas. See Arrick Projectile, Blakely Projectile, Butler Projectiles, Confederate Projectiles, Dana Projectile, Dyer Projectile, Hotchkiss Projectiles, James Projectile, Parrott Projectiles, Projectiles, Sawyer Projectiles, and Schenkl Projectile.

EXPANDING SABOT PROJECTILE: An elongated projectile designed to take the grooves of the bore by the use of an expanding sabot or forcing cup system. The expansion was accomplished by the force of the gas, produced by the explosion of the powder charge, pushing against the soft metal sabot and forcing the metal into the groove of the weapon. This gave the projectile a twist as it exited the bore and increased the accuracy of flight and trajectory range. Examples of expanding projectiles are the Parrott, Dyer, Hotchkiss, James, Sawyer, and Schenkl, among others.

EXPANSION CUP: A metal cup, ring, or soft metal sabot attached to the base of the projectile. The cup was the same diameter as the projectile when loaded, but when it was fired the cup expanded into the lands and grooves of the bore.

EXPANSIVE SYSTEM OF RIFLING: This system embraces all projectiles which in loading are inserted in the gun without respect to the rifling, but which take the grooves by the action of the gases of discharge upon a device or feature of the projectile, which is readily expanded thereby into the grooves of the gun. This class of projectiles has been so extensively and almost exclusively used in the United States that it is known as the American system. The chief projectiles of this class are: 1. Those where the sabot is of lead or soft metal. In these the windage is apt to be entirely closed. The lead may strip or be forced over the projectile, and balloting or wedging be induced. 2. Those having sabots of copper or brass, cup-shaped on the bottom of the projectile. These seem to suffer from the violence of the explosion within the cup, which is apt to be broken or unevenly set up. 3. Those where a leaden jacket is forced out by the action of the discharge upon a wedge or key. These have small capacity as shell and little strength as shot, strip easily, and are open to many objections. 4. Those where a concave or convex disk is flattened against the base of the projectile, or in addition is provided with a flange or key which is driven by the discharge upon the tapered base of the projectile. 5. Those where the rotating device consists of an annular band or ring attached to the base of the projectile and intended to be expanded into the rifling by the gases of discharge. These have proved most successful in practice. See System of Rifling.

EXPENSE MAGAZINE: See Magazine.

EXPENSE MAGAZINES: The very small gunpowder-magazines, containing the made-up ammunition for the service of the guns on the works, at the rate of so many rounds per gun. In fortifications of the old construction an expense-magazine was made in each bastion and battery, though this was not always the case. Expense-magazines are often made under the earthen ramparts of fortifications, with a passage cut into them in the interior slopes. In the more modern works, such as the Instruction of Fortification at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, it is shown that expense-magazines should be placed as near as is practicable to the guns which they have to supply, and may often be conveniently constructed under the traverses and below the level of the terre-plein, with lifts of communication. They can, if so situated, be easily secured against the enemy’s fire, and be provided with subterranean communications with the main magazine, which would permit them to be replenished without risk, even during action. The first suggestions made as to the size of expense-magazines in fortifications of the present day gave four guns to be supplied by each, but a later recommendations proposes only two guns, in the case of very heavy guns.

EXPLOSION: The term explosion is rather loosely used. Considering it as synonymous with explosive reaction, it may defined as a chemical action causing the sudden or extremely rapid formation of a very great volume of highly expanded gas.

Explosive effect is caused by the blow or impulse given by this rapid production of gas in a confined space. The explosive character of the change, then, depends – 1st. Upon the great change of state produced; that is, the formation of gas very much greater in volume than the substance from which it is derived, and which is still more expanded by the heat evolved. 2d. Upon the shortness of the time required for the change to take place. Both these causes operate to a greater or less extent in all explosive reactions. When both are fully exerted the most energetic chemical reaction, or, in other words, the most violent explosion, takes place. Also, the differences in explosions and explosive bodies depend upon the differing manner and proportions in which they are exerted. Thus, a nitroglycerine is much more powerful and violent than gunpowder, because it generates a larger volume of gas in a shorter time. Again, fulminating mercy is not more powerful than gunpowder, although the decomposition goes on more quickly, since the quantity of gas given off and the temperature of the reaction are less.

The kinds and quantity of gas given off in an explosive reaction depend upon the chemical composition of the explosive body and the character of the decomposition. The heat evolved during the reaction adds to the effect by increasing the tension (expanding the volume) of the gas formed. The heat given off in a reaction is an absolute quantity, the same whether the reaction goes on slowly or rapidly. But the explosive effect will evidently greatly depend upon the rapidity of the formation and expansion of the gas. Thus, if an explosive undergoes the same change under all circumstances of firing, then total amount of force developed will always be the same; but the explosive effect will be increased as the time of action is lessened. Explosions are greatly affected by the circumstances attending them. Different substances, of course, give different results, from their different compositions and reactions. But we also find that the same substance will exercise a different explosive effect when fired under certain conditions than under others. These may affect either the rapidity or the results of the chemical change. By shortening the time of the reaction the explosion is rendered sharper and more violent. With some explosives the decomposition is different under different circumstances. Thus, gunpowder when fired under great pressure gives different products than when fired unconfined. Circumstances of explosion may be generally considered under – 1st. Physical or mechanical condition of the explosive body itself. 2d. External conditions. 3d. Mode of firing. Many instances may be given indicating the influence of its state upon the explosion of a substance. Thus, nitroglycerine at temperatures above 40 degrees Fahr. Exploded by a fuze containing 15 grains of fulminating mercury. Below 40 degrees it freezes and cannot be so fired. The advantage of dynamite over nitroglycerine lies altogether in the fact that the former is presented in another mechanical condition, more convenient and safer to use than the liquid form. The nitroglycerine itself is the same chemically in either case. The same mixture of charcoal, sulphur, and saltpeter gives a very different effect if made up into large grains than if made up into small ones. Gun-cotton presents the most marked example of the effect of mechanical state, since it can be prepared in so many ways. If flame is applied to loose uncompressed gun-cotton it will flash off; if it is spun into threads or woven into webs, its rate of combustion may be so much reduced that it can be used in gunnery or for a quick fuze; powerfully compressed and damp, it burns slowly; dry gun-cotton may be exploded by a fulminate-fuze; wet, it requires an initial explosion of a small amount of dry, etc.

Confinement is necessary to obtain the full effect of all explosives. The most rapid explosion requires certain time for its accomplishment. As the time required is less, the amount of confinement necessary is less. Then, with the sudden or violent explosives, the confinement required may be so small that its consideration may be practically neglected. For instance, large stones or blocks of iron may be broken by the explosion of nitroglycerine upon their surfaces in the open air. Here the atmosphere itself acts as a confining agent. The explosion of the nitroglycerine is so sudden that the air is not at once moved. Again, chloride of nitrogen is one of the most sudden and violent of all explosives. In its preparation it is precipitated from a watery liquid, and therefore is, when used, wet or covered with a very thin film of water. This thin film of water, not more than 1/1000 of an inch in thickness, is necessary and sufficient confinement, and if it is removed the explosive effect is much diminished. Gunpowder, on the other hand, requires strong confinement, since its explosion is comparatively slow. Thus, in firing a large charge of gunpowder under water, unless the case is strong enough to retain the gases until the action has become general, it will be broken, and a large amount of the powder thrown out unburned. This is often the case in firing large-grained powder in heavy guns. The ball leaves the gun before all the powder has burned, and grains or lumps of it are thrown out uninjured. The confinement needed by the slower explosives may be diminished by igniting the charge at many points, so that less time is required for its complete explosion.

In any explosive reaction the mode of bringing about the change exercises an important influence. The application of heat, directly or indirectly, is the principal means of causing an explosion. Thus, in gunnery, the flame from the percussion-cap or primer directly ignites the charge; so also a fine platinum wire heated by an electric current will ignite explosive material which is in contact with it. Friction, percussion, concussion, produce the same effect indirectly, by the conversion of mechanical energy into heat, which is communicated to the body to be exploded. When one explosive body is used as a means of firing another, it may be considered that the blow delivered by the gas suddenly formed from the firing-charge acts percussively upon the mass to be exploded. The particles of this gas are thrown out with great velocity; but meeting with the resistance of the mass around them, they are checked, and their energy is converted into heat. It is found, however, that the action of explosives on one another cannot be perfectly explained in this way. If the action were simply the conversion of energy into heat, then the most powerful explosive would be the best agent for causing explosion. But this is not the case. Nitroglycerine is much more powerful than fulminating mercury; but 15 grains of the latter will explode gun-cotton, while 70 times as much nitroglycerine will not do it. Chloride of nitrogen is much more violent than fulminating mercury, but larger quantities of the former than of the latter must be used to cause other explosions. Again, nitroglycerine is fired with certainty by a small amount of fulminating mercury, while with a much large amount of gunpowder the explosion is less certain and feebler. In these cases it is evident that the fulminating mercury must have some special advantage, since it produces the desired effect more easily than the others. It may be considered that the fulminating mercury sets up a form of motion or vibration to which the other bodies are sensitive. Just as a vibrating body will induce corresponding vibrations in others, so the peculiar rate of motion or wave of impulse sent out by the fulminating mercury exerts a greater disturbing influence upon the molecules of some bodies than that derived from other substances.

An explosive molecule is unstable and very susceptible to external influences. Its atoms are in a nicely balanced equilibrium, which is, however, more readily overturned by one kind of blow than another. The explosive molecule takes up the wave of impulse of the fulminate, but the strain is too great, and its own balance is destroyed. So a glass may stand a strong blow; while a particular note or vibration will break it. In the case mentioned above, of gun-cotton affected by nitroglycerine or fulminate, the explosion of the nitroglycerine is strong enough to teat and scatter the gun-cotton, but the blow, though very powerful, is not one that the gun-cotton is sensitive to; on the other hand, the fulminate blow, though weaker, readily upsets the molecule of the gun-cotton. In addition, the explosion proceeds very differently when brought about in this way than when caused by simple inflammation. When a mass of explosive is ignited by a flame, the action extends gradually through it; but if it is exploded by a blow, acting in the manner above described, it is plain that the explosion will be nearly instantaneous throughout, since the impulse will be transmitted through the mass with far greater rapidity than an inflammation proceeding from particle to particle. The explosive reaction will then proceed much more rapidly, and the explosive effect will be more violent.

The phenomenon of the explosion of powder may be divided into three distinct parts, viz., ignition, inflammation, and combustion. By ignition is understood the setting on fire of a particular point of the charge; by inflammation, the spread of the ignition from one grain to another; and by combustion, the burning of each grain from its surface to center. See Combustion, Detonation, Explosive Agents, Gun-powder, Ignition, and Inflammation.

FABRICATION OF PROJECTILES: Shot and Shells, depending upon their kind and size, should be made of gray or of mottled cast-iron, of good quality. Those that are large and required to possess great strength should be of "gun-metal," melted in an air-furnace. For ordinary projectiles mottled iron is used; it is obtained by melting, in a cupola-furnace, a mixture of white and gray pig-irons. Shrapnel must be made of the best quality of iron, and with peculiar care, in order that they may not be liable to break in the piece. Grape and Canister should be of soft gray iron, brought to a very fluid state before casting. Chilled shot are cast from a special mixture of irons, melted in a cupola-furnace.

All projectiles should be cast in sand and not in iron molds, as those from the latter are seldom uniform in size or shape, are liable to contain cavities, and are cracked if heated. Sand possessing all the properties to be desired for molding is seldom, if ever, found in a state of nature. But, when the requisite qualities are known, the materials may be selected and an artificial composition produced without difficulty. The sand should be silicious, refractory, and of an angular grain of moderate size. The degree to which the first and second qualities should be possessed depends upon the size of the casting; the sand must not be fuzed or even softened by the heat to which it is subjected. The angular form and large size of the particles increase the resistance of the mold, though rendering it less compact; this last facilitates the evaporation of the moisture in drying, and permits the escape of the gases formed in the material of the mold by the heat of the fuzed metal. Pit- and not river-sand should be used, as the latter is not sufficiently sharp or cohesive.

The molding composition must contain such an amount of clay that, when slightly moistened, it will retain its shape when pressed in the hand; it must become hard when dried that it may not lose the form given it, and must possess the consistence necessary to resist the pressure of the liquid metal. As clay contracts by heat, an excess of it will cause cracks in the mold in drying. The manner of preparing the composition is usually to mix fire-sand and loam or field-sand, to sift it carefully, and then to moisten it with water in which clay has been stirred. The particular sand to be employed, and the proportion of clay to be introduced, depend upon the size of the casting.

Spherical Projectiles – Case-shot shell, and all solid shot smaller than the 15-inch are cast singly. Fifteen- and twenty-inch solid shot are usually cast in clusters of five and three respectively.

When cast singly the pattern of a spherical projectile is composed of two hollow cast-iron hemispheres, uniting in such a manner as to form a perfect sphere; on the interior of each hemisphere is a handle by which it is withdrawn from the sand after molding. The flask has neither top nor bottom, or has movable ones; it is usually in two parts, joining the same plane as the pieces of the pattern. In molding a shell (Figs. 1 and 2), the pattern, P, of that half in which is situated the fuze-hole is placed with its flat side upon the molding-board, B; this is covered with its corresponding half of the flask, F; the spindle (p), attached to the pattern, passes through a hole in the cross-piece (f) of the flask. Powdered charcoal or fine dry sand is sprinkled over the board and pattern, to prevent the fresh sand from adhering to these surfaces. The molding-sand is then introduced gradually into the flask being well rammed as it rises up about the pattern. When completed, this portion of the flask with its contents is turned over on a board, the other half of the pattern placed upon that already in position, and the second part of the flask laid on the first and properly fitted thereto. The pattern and the exposed surface of the mold are sprinkled as before, and the molding continued, a conical stick having first been so placed as to form the "gate," G, for the introduction of the molten metal. The flask having been filled, the two parts are separated; each now contains one half the mold with the corresponding part of the pattern. The stick for the gate is withdrawn from the outside, and the hemispheres are extracted from the inside. A channel is cut in the plane surface from g to m, so that the metal, entering at G, may be carried to the mold-cavity at a point where it can flow into place without injury to the surface of the sand. Any imperfections are at this time repaired. The whole interior surface is then coated with a wash of powdered coke and clay-water, after which the mold is thoroughly dried in an oven. This wash gives a smooth, hard surface to the sand, which insures a smooth casting.

The core is formed about a hollow iron spindle, perforated with small holes through which escape the steam and gases generated by the heat of the metal. The core is centered in the mold by means of a gauge, and is supported in that position by the spindle which forms the fuze-hole. The spindle is perforated with small holes to allow the escape of steam and gas generated by the heat of the melted metal; that part of it which forms the fuze-hole is coated with sand to prevent adhesion. When the ears for the shell-hooks are cast in the projectile the necessary projections for their formation are placed in position before drying the mold. In pouring the melted iron into the mold with the ladle, care should be taken to prevent scoria and dirt from entering with it, and for this purpose the surface should be skimmed with a stick of wood. After the iron has become sufficiently hardened the flask is removed, the sprue-head is broken off, and the composition scraped from the outside of the casting. The core is then broken up and removed, and the interior surface cleaned by a scraper. The projection at the gate and other excrescencies are next chipped off and the surface of the projectile is smoothed in a rolling-barrel, or with a file or chisel if found necessary. The fuze-hole is then reamed out to the proper size and the projectile is ready for inspection.

When shot are cast in clusters, the pattern is made of wood and consists of two longitudinal halves, which are fitted with iron pins or dowels so that they can be accurately joined together for the construction of the mold. The cluster is cast with a sinking-head to feed the shrinkage, while the shot are made with a diameter slightly in excess of the required one, to permit of their being turned down and finished. The flask is also made in two equal parts or sections which are united by bolts. The back of each section is fitted with movable plates, to admit of the introduction to the molding composition. To form the mold, one half of the pattern is laid upon the molding-board, together with the pattern for one half of the channel for the metal, both being held in place by dowels. A section of the flask is then placed in position over the patterns, and the intervening space is filled with molding composition, which is firmly rammed down, the patterns for the branches to the channels being introduced as the work progresses. The plates are then attached in their places. To form the other section of the mold, the finished one is removed from the molding-board and turned over, the remaining halves of the patterns and flask are placed in position upon it, and the molding composition filled in the same manner. A layer of dry sand is first sprinkled over the surface of the finished section to prevent adhesion. The Mold being completed, the two sections are separated and the patterns withdrawn. After being thoroughly dried in an oven and receiving a coating of coke wash on the interior surface, the sections are united and firmly secured together with bolts and nuts. The mold is then ready for the casting and is lowered into the pit. Several clusters are usually cast with one heat of metal, the number depending upon the capacity of the furnace. The casting is usually allowed to remain in the pit for twelve or fifteen hours after the pouring of the metal, when it is hoisted out and taken from the flask. After it becomes cool it is freed from the adhering composition and the gates are broken off.

To separate the shot in the cluster, the latter is placed in a lathe, shown in Fig. 3, the sinking-head being secured in the chuck at the head of the machine, while the other end is supported by a movable center which slides upon the ways. When the cluster is properly centered the necks which connect the shot are turned down as small as it is safe to make them without risking the breaking of the cluster in the lathe. The neck nearest to the bottom is then carefully turned down until it begins to show indications of breaking. The cluster is then chocked up by placing blocks between it and the lathe-bed, the center is slid back, and the shot is broken off by blows with a hammer and removed. The cluster is then re-centered in the lathe, and the shot are successively detached in a similar manner until all are separated. Care should be taken to preserve, as far as practicable, a spherical form to that portion of the surface where the neck is turned away. The small portions of the necks which remain after the separation are chipped off by hand. The shot is next turned down to the required diameter and given a smooth and finished surface. The tool-rest of this lathe is attached to a geared wheel, which is pivoted in a horizontal position upon an iron frame secured to the lathe-bed. The motion of this wheel by means of a feed causes the edge of the tool to move on the arc of a circle, its distance from the center of the circle meanwhile being regulated by a screw in the base of the rest. The shot is centered in the lathe by means of a square-headed screw in the axis of the wheel. In turning the shot it is made to revolve upon that diameter which coincides with the axis of the lathe, while the movement of the tool-rest, as above described, brings the tool in contact with all of the surface which is not covered by the supports. In this position the shot is finished as far as practicable, and is then re-centered so that the unturned portions of the surface can be brought in contact with the tool, when they are finished in like manner. The ears for the shell-hooks are then drilled in a drilling-machine and the shot is ready for inspection. Fifteen- and twenty-inch shell are sometimes cast above size and finished in the lathe in the same way as cluster-shot.

Elongated Projectiles – The same principles are followed in the different operations attending the fabrication of elongated as of spherical projectiles. The shape and construction of the flask and pattern depend upon the particular form of the projectile, the system to which it belongs, and the object for which it must be employed. The construction applied in the fabrication of a Parrott shell is shown in Fig. 4; the flask and pattern are each in two parts, united along the plane (f, f); the ring (m), of molding-sand, is made in a special box; and is inserted when the mold is assembled before casting, and is necessary to give the shape peculiar to that system of projectiles. The spindle, S, as in all the large oblong shells, passes entirely through the core, C, and is secured at both ends to the flask, or to the mold. The metal is taken from the cupola into the ladles, and, in the case of chilled shot, usually slightly cooled by throwing in a piece of scrap-iron. This is done to prevent the chill-molds from being cracked. The metal enters the mold from below, near and above the chill-mold, and (from the shape of the lower branch of the "feeder") in an oblique direction, to avoid disturbing the core and to give a circular motion to the metal as it rises in the mold, and so prevent the scoria from adhering to the sides. One workman skims the surface of the metal with a wooden stick, as it runs from the ladle, to prevent the admission of the scoria, while another stirs it as it rises, with an iron rod, through the "riser," to bring the impurities to the surface. Before fairly cooled the flasks are removed, the sand knocked off, the core-stem extracted, and the shot left to cool in the heated sand in which it was cast, The sand is now carefully scraped from the cavity, the sinking-head is removed, and the rough edges trimmed off with a cold-chisel. It is then examined as to quality and weight, and the amount of eccentricity roughly determined. The shot is at once condemned if there be a variation in any of these particulars in excess of that allowed. It sometimes happens, too, that the chill has extended so far over the surface as to make it impossible to finish the shot by the means ordinarily employed in this country. Such shot are, however, sometimes finished by the grindstone. Having passed this preliminary inspection, it is put in the lathe and turned down to the true diameter for the length of .25 inch. The shot is finally passed through the finishing-press, and placed in a lathe where the base is finished; if the Butler sabot is to be used, a screw-thread is cut upon the base. The sabot is usually formed of an alloy of 70 parts copper and 30 of zinc. It is either cast separately or directly upon the base of the projectile; in the former case it is bored and turned to the finished size. The shot is completed by tapping a thread on the screw-plug hole, fitting it with a plug, and screwing or casting on the sabot. See Core-box, Finishing-press, and Projectiles.

FACE OF THE PIECE: The surface, or plane, at the extremity of the muzzle or trunnions.

FAIRING: Architectural blending of surfaces in artillery pieces to create a smooth outline instead of abrupt joints. This helped reduce stress in the weapon.

FASCINE: 1) Long bundle of green brushwood tied together. Fascines were placed closely together in entrenchments, epaulements, and revetments of parapets to support the earthen walls. They were also used for covering wet or marshy ground. Fascines ranged in length from 6- to 18-feet. 2) Fascines were also made of dry twigs tied together and covered with pitch to be used as torches.

FIELD AMMUNITION: Projectiles designated for use in field artillery pieces. This category consisted of solid shot, shell, canister, and case-shot.

FIELD ARTILLERY: Artillery piece designated for use in the field. The essential quality of field artillery was mobility, and it was used in combination with the infantry and cavalry to augment their fire. Field artillery prepared the way for operations by firing at the enemy while he was still out of range of other weapons. It also served as a point of support and assembly when troops were driven back. Examples of field artillery included the 3-inch Wrought-iron (Ordnance) rifle, the 6-pounder (3.67-inch caliber) smoothbore, 12-pounder (4.62-inch caliber) Napoleon smoothbore cannon, the 20-pounder Parrott and the 4.5-inch Siege rifle, the largest gun in the field artillery of the Civil War.

FIELD BATTERY: A certain number of pieces of artillery, usually six, equipped for attack or defense and capable of accompanying cavalry or infantry in their movements in the field. Field batteries were divided into mounted artillery, which usually served with infantry, and horse artillery, which normally was assigned to cavalry.

FIELD CARRIAGE: Two-wheeled carriage made of white oak upon which the field tube rested. This carriage was extremely light and easy to maneuver. The nomenclature consists of handspike, lunette, trail (stock), trail handle, prolonge, elevating screw, lock chain, cheek, barrel or tube, trunnion cap, and sponge/rammer.

FIELD AND MOUNTAIN AMMUNITION: The ammunition for field and mountain service in the United States service consists of – shot for the 12-pounder gun; shells for the 12-pounder gun, 12-pounder mountain-howitzer, and 3- and 3 -inch rifle-guns; case-shot for the 12-pounder gun, 12-pounder mountain-howitzer, and 3- and 3 -inch rifle-guns; canister for the 12-pounder gun, 12-pounder mountain-howitzer, and 3- and 3 -inch rifle-guns. The projectiles are attached by straps of tin to a wooden sabot, to which is also fastened the cartridge-bag containing the charge for the 12-pounder and the mountain-howitzer, making together one round of fixed ammunition. With rifle-guns the cartridge is not attached to the projectile. The cartridge-bag is a cylindrical bag with a circular bottom, made of merino or serge. The material should be composed entirely of wool, free from any mixture of thread or cotton, and of sufficiently close texture to prevent the powder from sifting through; that which is twilled is preferred. Flannel is used when the other materials cannot be conveniently obtained.

The manner of fixing and strapping ammunition is explained in the articles Fixed Ammunition and Strapped Ammunition. The following is the mode of charging shells for field and mountain service: The shells having been properly cleaned, dried, tapped to receive the plug and the fuze, and attached to the sabot, are placed in two rows. The workman fills the measure with powder, strikes it level with the straight-edge, and pours it in the shell; the assistant holds the funnel, and marks the shell with chalk when filled, to prevent mistakes. The assistant screws in the plug. The workman puts a little white-lead on the threads of the fuze, punches 4 or 5 small holes in the tin disk, and screws the fuze firmly into the shell, the assistant holding the shall to prevent it from turning.

In the matter of a case-shot, the shot having been cleaned and inspected, the upper part of the fuze-hole is tapped to receive the fuze; the small hole is tapped to receive the plug. The following materials are required to fill the shells: spherical leaden balls, caliber .69 inch; sulphur or rosin; linseed-oil. To fill the shell, cover the lead balls with linseed-oil, and fill the shell with them, pushing the upper balls aside with a stick, to get in as many as possible. Warm the shell gently, and screw the neck of the funnel into the fuze-hole; pour in the melted sulphur, filling the shell. To make the chamber for the charge, chuck the shot in a lathe; screw the funnel into the fuze-hole to protect the threads from being injured by the anger, and with a common screw-auger bore a hole in the axis of the shell to the bottom. Diameter of the auger, .75 inch. Lacquer the shot and strap it; paint it red. To charge the shot, fill the chamber with musket-powder, ramming it slightly with a wooden drift and light mallet; screw in the iron plug, leaving its top flush with the bottom of the large portion of the fuze-hole, and lay over it a thin leather washer with a hole in the center; fill the hole in the plug and washer with rifle-powder; punch four or five small holes in the tin disk in the bottom of the fuze; put a little white-lead on the threads of the fuze, and screw the fuze firmly into the shell. The case-shot is fixed the same as round shot.

A canister for field-service consists of a tin cylinder attached to a sabot, and filled with lead balls, eleven to the pound. Canister for the mountain-howitzer are filled with lead balls, eleven to the pound. Canister for the mountain-howitzer are filled with lead balls. The following materials are required: sheets of tin, .02 inch to .025 inch thick (double tin); soft solder; rosin; culots of rolled iron, .25 inch thick; covers of sheet-iron, .07 inch thick for the guns and 12-pounder howitzers, and .1 inch thick for the 24- and 32-pounder howitzers; sabots; tacks.

Canister for rifle-guns have metal sabots, and are filled with lead balls. The following utensils are required: patterns; tracing-point; shears; cylinder of hard wood; mallet; gauges; furnace; soldering-iron; hammer; punch. To make the cylinder, the workman marks out the rectangle on the sheet with the pattern, cuts it, and traces the line for the lap. He draws a line parallel to the long side of the rectangle, .4 to .5 inch from it, for the length of the slits. It is then bent round the former, the edge brought to the line of the lap, clamped and soldiered. If lumps of solder be left, they are filed down. The cylinder is made round and gauged on the exterior with the large shot-gauge of the caliber, and the interior with a cylinder of a diameter .02 inch less than that given in the table, which should enter the canister. If it be not the right size, it is unsoldered and soldered over again. The slits are made and the sabot inserted and nailed with 6 to 8 nails. Before filling the canister, dip the tin cylinder into a lacquer of beeswax dissolved in spirits of turpentine, to prevent it from rusting. Coat the plates with pain or coal-tar.

The workman, sitting astride the bench, places the canister upright in front of him; inserts the iron bottom and places it flat on the sabot; puts in a tier of balls; fills the interstices with dry, sifted sawdust; packs it with a pointed stick, so that the balls will hold themselves, and throws out the loose sawdust. He places another tier of balls, each ball lying in the interval between two balls of the lower tier, and proceeds in the same manner until the canister is filled; covers the upper tier with sawdust; puts on the cover, places on it one of the iron bottoms furnished with a handle, and strikes it with a small mallet in order to compress the sawdust; then removes this bottom, and turns down the slit pieces of the canister over the cover with a hammer. In the canister for the 12-pounder gun the center ball of the last tier is omitted. When the canister is finished, verify its diameter with the large shot-gauge of the same caliber.

The Sawyer canister-shot for all guns and howitzers consists of a casing of malleable iron, in one piece, in the form of a hollow cylinder, having one end closed by a head cast therewith, through which head is formed one or more small holes, through which a portion of the gas occasioned by the explosion of the charge of powder enters, driving forward the small iron balls, and disengaging the metal cover placed in the forward end of the casing to hold the contents in position till fired. The casing has, cut through its walls, one or more series of oblique slits, the end of each slit slightly overlapping the end of the next slit in the same series, thus nearly severing the casing into two or more sections, said sections being held together only by narrow bars of metal between the contiguous ends of two slits, which bars are sufficiently strong to withstand the ordinary shocks of handling and transportation, but not strong enough to resist the shock of the explosion of the charge of powder in the gun, so that when the shot is discharged from a gun the cover is stripped from the mouth of the casing, and the casing is broken into two or more sections, from which the small shot are more readily and completely discharged than they would be if the casing remained intact.

For the greater security of field-ammunition, the cartridges are covered with paper cylinders and caps. The cap is drawn off at the moment of loading the piece, and in using solid shot it may be placed over the shot to diminish the windage. A cylinder and a cap are formed together by folding the paper over a former, which allows a lap of about .75 inch for pasting. The requisite length for the cylinder is cut off from the smaller end. The rest forms the cap, which is choked at the end from which the cylinder is cut on a cylindrical former, which has a groove around it, marking the length from the rounded end for cutting the cap. The former should be bored through the axis with a .5-inch hole, to facilitate drawing off the cap. The caps for shells are black; for spherical case-shot, red; for shot, not colored.

***See the following table

SUMMARY OF THE AMMUNITION FOR FIELD AND MOUNTAIN SERVICE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Smooth-bore gun

 

Howitzer

 

Rifle-guns

Hotchkiss

12-pounder, bronze

12-pounder mountain-

howitzer

3-inch iron

3.5-inch iron

Revolving cannon

Shell

Case

Shot

Canister

Shell

Case

Canister

Shell

Case

Canister

Shell

Case

Canister

Shell

Canister

                            grains grains
Charge of powder…………………………………….lbs 2 2.5 2.5 2 0.5 0.5 0.5 1 1 1 2.25 2.25 2.25 1850 1850
Height of charge……….…………………………inches 3.75 4.75 4.75 3.75 2.25 2.25 2.25 5.75 5.75 5.75 7 7 7 3.5 3.5
Cartridge-bag………..Length…………………….….." 14.2 14.2 14.2 14.2 10.42 10.42 10.42 9 9 9 11 11 11 4.724 4.724
Width…………………………." 10 10 10 10 5 5 5 8.75 8.75 8.75 9.5 9.5 9.5 ….. …..
Diameter of bottom…………..." 5.25 5.25 5.25 5.25 4 4 4 3.75 3.75 3.75 4.5 4.5 4.5 1.641 1.641
Whole height……………….…" 2.125 2.125 2.125 2.285 2.785 2.785 3.781 ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. 5 ….. …...
Height of cylinder………….…" ….. …… ….. 0.575 2 2 2.55 ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. …..
Diameter of cylinder……….…" 4.45 4.45 4.45 4.45 4.4 4.4 4.4 ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. …..
Diameter of top of cone………" ….. ….. ….. ….. 4.17 4.17 4.45 ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. …..
Diameter of bottom of cone.…." ….. ….. ….. ….. 3.175 3.175 3.23 ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. …..
Strap…………………Length…………………….….." 7 7 13 ….. 7 7 7 ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. …..
Width…………………………." 0.5 0.5 0.5 ….. 0.5 0.5 0.5 ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. …..
Rings, diameter, exterior………………………….….." 3.25 3.25 ….. ….. 3.25 3.25 3.25 ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. …..
Weight of sabot…………………………….…….ounces 4.5 4.5 4.5 7.5 5.5 5.5 9.5 ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. …..
Weight of projectiles, strapped……………….………lbs 8.8 11.25 12.1 14.2 9.35 12.2 11.2 8.12 9.13 ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. …..
(Shell and case loaded.)                              
Canister……….……..Length………….…………inches ….. ….. ….. 14.35 ….. ….. 14.4 ….. ….. 8.0 ….. ….. 11 ….. …..
Height………….……….…..…" ….. ….. ….. 6.66 ….. ….. 4 ….. ….. 7 ….. ….. 8.5 ….. …..
Interior diameter….…….……." ….. ….. ….. 4.45 ….. ….. 4.47 ….. ….. 2.8 ….. ….. 3.2 ….. …..
Diameter of plates….…..…….." ….. ….. ….. 4.38 ….. ….. 4.42 ….. ….. 2.8 ….. ….. 3.2 ….. …..
Thickness of top plate…....…..." ….. ….. ….. 0.116 ….. ….. 0.1 ….. ….. 0.125 ….. ….. 0.125 ….. …..
Thickness of bottom plate….…" ….. ….. ….. 0.125 ….. ….. 0.125 ….. ….. 0.125 ….. ….. 0.125 ….. …..
Number of Shot…………….….. ….. ….. ….. 27 ….. ….. 148 ….. ….. 154 ….. ….. 0.140 ….. …..
Weight…………..……….…..lbs ….. ….. ….. 14.2 ….. ….. 14.2 ….. ….. 10.75 ….. ….. 17 ….. …..
Fixed Ammunition….Whole length……………..inches 9.5 10.3 10.7 12.12 8.17 8.17 9.4 ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. 8.15 8.15
Weight……………………….lbs 11 13 15.3 16.44 9.9 12.6 11.8 ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. 1 lb

10 oz

1 lb

9.4 oz

Packing box…………Interior diameter.…Length...inch 17.5 17.5 17.5 18.37 27.5 27.5 27.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 11 11 11 ….. …..
Width…...." 9.75 9.62 10.5 12.5 9.25 9.25 9.25 12.5 12.5 12.5 11 11 11 ….. …..
Height.….." 9.25 9.25 9.5 9.5 8.5 8.5 9.5 8 8 7.5 9 9 8 ….. …..
Weight, packed……….….….lbs 106 122 140 156.5 154 184 175 161 184 175 160 180 198 ….. …..
Number of rounds……………… 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 12 12 12 9 9 9 ….. …..
Number of primers……….…….. 10 10 10 10 18 18 18 18 18 18 14 14 14 ….. …..
Color……………………….…… black red olive drab black red drab black red drab black red drab ….. …..

On the preceding page will be found a summary of the ammunition for field and mountain service.

Shells are filled with the bursting-charge of mortar-powder to their capacity. Case-shot are filled with lead balls which are set with melted sulphur or rosin, and bored out for the bursting-charge with as large a chamber as the fuze-hole will admit of, which is filled with powder or bursting-charge of other explosive, space being left for the fuze-plug or fuzes. When sabots are used, a spherical cavity is made for the seat of the projectile. When port-fires are used, one to each box of ammunition, and half a yard of slow-match is packed, and sufficient tow to render the whole packing secure. Large charge for 3-inch rifle-gun, 1.5 pound; half an inch is allowed for each seam in a cartridge-bag. Rifle-ammunition has not wooden sabots, nor is the cartridge attached to the projectile; these are packed on top of the projectiles, or, better, in a part of the box separated from the projectiles by a partition, in which case the small stores are packed on top of the cartridges. Hotchkiss ammunition is metallic; wrapped metal; centre-primed case. See Ammunition, Ammunition-boxes, Cartridge-bags, Fixed Ammunition, Projectiles, Sabot, and Strapped Ammunition.

FIELD ARTILLERY: Field-cannon are intended to be used in the operations of an army in the field; they should therefore, have the essential quality of mobility. They are divided into light and heavy pieces. The former are constructed to follow the rapid movements of light troops and cavalry. The latter are employed to follow the movements of heavy troops, to commence an action at long distance, to defend field-works and important positions on the field of battle, etc.; hence they are said to constitute "batteries of position." Formerly the light pieces of the field-service of the United States were the 6-pounder Gun and 12-pounder Howitzer; and the heavy pieces were the 12-pounder Gun and 24-pounder And 32-pounder. Howitzers. At the commencement of the late war in this country, these pieces were set aside for arming field-works, block-houses, etc., and their places were supplied with the light 12-pounder Gun (smooth-bore) and the 3-inch rifle-gun. The regulations prescribe that, as a general rule, one third of the pieces of a field-battery be rifles and the remainder smooth-bores. Of course this proportion is subject to be modified by the character of the operations and the nature of the country. The country in which most of our late military operations were conducted was either broken in surface or heavily wooded, and the most effective fighting was done at moderate ranges, at which the light 12-pounder, with its heavy shell and case-shot, was found more destructive than the 3-inch rifle-gun.

Field artillery is used in combination with infantry and cavalry, or with both, to augment their fire and to weaken that of the enemy. It prepares the way for subsequent operations by its fire upon the enemy before he comes within reach of other weapons; it supports the maneuvers of the various arms, and forms points of support and assembly for troops when driven back. In selecting the position for a battery, the ground must be considered both in plan and profile. The guns must be placed neither too high nor too low. Late wars have shown that it is not alone desirable but necessary to cover the guns and horses of a battery from the enemy’s fire, either by the accidents of the ground or by improvised cover; for nothing else can insure the battery against destruction by the enemy’s infantry and artillery. The range, accuracy, and rapidity of fire of small-arms of the present day are such that batteries which have been brought into action with the greatest possible rapidity have been placed hors du combat before firing a shot. The most favorable position is a gentle hillock, sloping gradually to the front and more abruptly to the rear, with a command over the ground occupied by the enemy of about 1 in 100. Considering the ground in plan, guns may be drawn up with good effect behind a marsh, pond, or river or ravine, provided such obstacles do not render an advance impracticable, and the ravine be not occupied by the enemy. The guns should not be in the neighborhood of woods, brush, or other cover that can be occupied by the enemy. Heavy, muddy ground, as well as that which is stony, should be avoided. The ground for 50 to 100 yards in front of the battery should be as unfavorable as possible for the enemy’s artillery-fire.

The extreme range should be employed only when the nature of the ground or the shortness of the time does not permit a nearer approach to the object, and then only till the effect desired has been obtained. With rifled pieces this fire may exceed 5000 or 6000 yards. It may annoy troops in their camp, may impede the movement of trains, and endanger inflammable buildings and materials, but cannot affect an action; therefore, to open fire beyond the limit at which the effect can be ascertained by good sight, aided by telescopes, is a waste of valuable ammunition. If the ground and atmosphere be favorable, and the range can be determined accurately, fire may be opened against troops at 2500 yards, and under exceptional circumstances at 3000 yards; the former is about the distance at which bodies of troops can be distinguished with certainty by the best eye. This distance is modified by the formation of the troops; a column can be fired at effectively 500 yards beyond troops in line. At long range the object must be well defined, the distance carefully determined, and the firing calm and very deliberate. As a battery cannot withstand the fire of small-arms, artillery without cover cannot now maintain a position within 900 yards of the enemy’s infantry.

The object selected upon which to direct the fire depends upon the nature of the action. In acting offensively, the fire should be directed upon that arm of the enemy which most immediately threatens us. Definite rules cannot be given for what must practically be decided almost entirely by the peculiar circumstances of the individual case. The nature and position of the object fired at determine the projectile to be used. The employment of solid shot is growing greatly into disuse; with rifled guns it is but little used, and in many services is entirely discarded, as the shell and shrapnel as now constructed are sufficiently strong and heavy to replace it and produce far more ultimate effect. It may be useful in firing over troops, but even then shells, preferably with percussion-fuze, can be employed. Shells are used at first to determine the range; for this, percussion-fuzes are best if the nature of the ground permit. This fire is used to disable artillery; against columns of troops, or when a line can be enfiladed or taken obliquely; against obstacles, such as intrenchments and buildings, and against combustible materials. If the shell be intended for incendiary purposes, a time-fuze cut long is employed. Should the distance be accurately known and the time-fuze burn uniformly, such a fuze can be advantageously used; but generally a percussion-fuze is more useful. The nature of the ground is of little importance only at the spot where the shell strikes; there it should be firm enough to cause a percussion-fuze to act and to prevent the shell from penetrating so far as to lose its explosive effect. Shell-fire is employed when the enemy is posted under cover, or on a higher or lower ground; when he is moving on a road through a valley, and when being pursued; when the ground is much broken, wooded, or cannot be seen; when the range is too great for effective shrapnel fire; for incendiary purposes, and when a moral rather than a physical effect is desired.

In the fire of shrapnel and segment shells, it is of more importance to have a knowledge of distance than of the nature of the ground, as the elevation must be properly taken and the fuze correctly timed. If such a projectile explode after passing the object, its effect is entirely lost; and if it explode too far short, the effect is greatly diminished; therefore the aim should be taken a little short of the object, that it may be the more readily corrected. The spread of the pieces being greater in the direction of the fire than laterally, these projectiles are more effective against high, deep objects than against broad, flat ones; they are therefore more destructive against cavalry in column than in line, and more so against either than against infantry in column or in line. Shrapnel-fire is also employed against troops dispersed or scattered; against troops in defiles or openings, or massed at points. It is effective against artillery in position, especially when it can be taken obliquely; time-fuzes should be used against the animate objects, and percussion-fuzes against the material. Time- or percussion-fuzes can be employed against troops in column or in line; but if they be scattered, time-fuzes only should be used. Well-applied shrapnel-fire is more effective than any other artillery-fire against troops, but it is subject to so many contingencies, and the ammunition is so costly, that it should not be employed unless it will probably create considerable effect, and when other projectiles will not answer. The possibility of shrapnel exploding in the piece causes great care to be necessary in firing over the heads or through the intervals of the troops. The fire of canister-shot is confined to ranges within 500 yards, and is rarely of any effect beyond 350 yards. The nature of the surface has a great influence on the utility of this fire; it is largely diminished on rough or soft ground, especially if covered with bushes or standing crops, and is increased on hard, level ground. As batteries can no longer move up to short range of troops and open fire with canister, its use offensively is entirely ended. On the defense, it is used to most advantage against troops in column whose front is greater than thirty or forty fee; it is useful against scattered or dispersed troops at short ranges, and against the attack of field-intrenchments, villages, and the skirts of woods. In cases of great emergency, a double charge of canister, fired with a single cartridge, may be used for distances within two hundred yards. A canister-fire should not be used too early, as, if ineffective, it destroys the confidence of the troops and increases that of the enemy. It does not always produce the desired effect: 1st, because the distance is underestimated; 2d, sufficient care is not taken in aiming, because the danger is exaggerated; 3d, the character of the ground is not properly appreciated and projectiles are wasted. The fire of machine-guns, which can be used effectively at 1500 yards, may replace the employment of canister.

The selection of the most suitable kind of fire, whether direct or ricochet, depends upon the distance of the enemy, the conformation and nature of the intervening ground, the formation of the troops, so far as it can be judged, and the effect to be produced. Direct fire should be employed whenever the surface of the ground is uneven and the quality of the soil varied, or the soil soft and light. It is used in special cases: 1st. when the enemy is so situated as to conceal the depth of his formation. 2d. When he is about to pass a defile, and the head of the column only is seen, or when the depth of the column can be seen by being commanded or overlooked. 3d. In all sustained cannonades. 4th. If the enemy be on a mountain or in a valley. When the difference of level between the object and piece is not great, the character of the fire will be determined by the nature of the intervening ground. Ricochet-fire should never be used for a less distance than 1000 yards, even when the ground is favorable, as it is necessary that the projectile should make at least two or three rebounds in front of the enemy. For the 12-pounder gun the limits of this fire may be considered as between 1200 and 1500 yards; the extreme range extending, however, to 2000 yards: for a less distance the rebounds are too high and the space commanded too small. If the ground be uneven, ricochet-fire will be too irregular to be useful. An open, flat, and firm piece of ground is most favorable; if within a certain distance in front of the piece or of the enemy the ground be soft and uneven, this species of fire cannot be employed. As much depends upon chance in ricochet-fire, it is seldom used on the offensive, for it attracts the attention of the enemy without doing much execution. See Artillery, Napoleon Gun, Ordnance, and Three-inch Rifle.

FIELD-ARTILLERY FUZE: The name given to the Breihaupt fuze by its inventor, because he designed it for all kinds of shells used with field artillery. See Breithaupt Fuze.

FIELD-BATTERY: A certain number of pieces of artillery so equipped as to be available for attack or defense, and capable of accompanying cavalry or infantry in all their movements in the field. There are usually allotted to a field-battery four pieces in time of peace and six in time of war, and it is divided into mounted artillery, which usually serves with infantry, and horse-artillery, which ordinarily serves with cavalry. The main difference between the two consists in the cannoneers of the latter being mounted; in rapid evolutions of the former they are conveyed on the gun-carriages. See Artillery and Battery.

FIELD-CARRIAGES: A marked change has been made within the last few years in the fabrication of carriages for field and mountain artillery. The principal nations have arrived in quick succession at the same conclusion with reference to the material of which these carriages should be made, and have already abandoned the use of wood except for the spokes and felloes of the wheels, and for poles, and substituted in its place wrought-iron or steel. The consideration which has led to this important modification is the superior strength, serviceability, and ultimate economy of the wrought-iron carriage. The general plan of construction adopted is much the same in all countries, and the carriages differ only in minor details, which vary according to the different ideas of taste and convenience, or as influenced by long-established usage.

The check and side of the trail are formed of one piece of boiler-plate, cut into the required shape and strengthened by angle-iron riveted to it around its outer edge, or made in one piece in a die, with the flange struck up while the metal is hot. The two pieces constituting the trail are joined together by the necessary transom and bolts, and by the lunette, which is riveted to both. The trail is further strengthened by the transoms forming the two ends of the trail tool-chest. The two pieces which form the sides of the trail slope from the head of the cheeks or from a point a short distance in rear of it to the lunette, and at the same time diminish in depth. The angle-iron which is riveted to the cheeks to strengthen and stiffen them forms also the trunnion-beds, and is placed sometimes on the outside and sometimes on the inside of the plate. The elevating-screw is arranged differently in different services. Minor differences will be mentioned in describing the carriages in detail. The Officer of any Department of the Government upon the Treasurer of any Assistant Treasurer, or designated depository of the United States, or upon any national bank designated as a depository of the United States, and which shall be represented on the books of either of such offices as standing to the credit of any Disbursing Officer, and which were issued to facilitate the payment of warrants, or for any other purpose in liquidation of a debt due from the United States, and which have for three years or more remained outstanding, unsatisfied, and unpaid, are deposited by the Treasurer, to be covered into the Treasury by warrant, and to be carried to the credit of the parties in whose favor such certificates, drafts, or checks were respectively issued, or to the persons who are entitled to receive pay therefor, and into tan appropriation account to be denominated "outstanding liabilities." The payee or the bona-fide holder of any draft or check the amount of which has been deposited and covered into the Treasury pursuant to the above paragraph, on presenting the same to the proper Officer of the Treasury, is entitled to have it paid by the settlement of an account and the issuing of a warrant in his favor, according to the practice in other cases of authorized and liquidated claims against the United States.

The following well-known Treasury regulations bear on this subject:

  1. Any Treasury draft or any check drawn by a public Disbursing Officer still in service, which shall be presented for payment before it shall have been issued three full fiscal years, will be paid in the usual manner by the office or bank on which it is drawn, and from funds to the credit of the drawer. Thus any such draft or check issued on or after July 1, 1873, will be paid as above stated until June 30, 1877, and the same rule will apply for subsequent years.
  2. Any such draft or check which has been issued for a longer period than three full fiscal years will be paid only by the settlement of an account as provided by law; and for this purpose the draft or check will be transmitted to the Secretary of the Treasury for the necessary action.

  3. The reports of independent Treasury Officers, national-bank depositories, and public Disbursing Officers will be rendered promptly to the Secretary of the Treasury at the close of each fiscal year.
  4. Whenever any Disbursing Officer of the United States shall cease to act in that capacity, he will at once inform the Secretary of the Treasury whether he has any public funds to his credit in any office or bank, and, if so, what checks, if any, he has drawn against the same which are still outstanding and unpaid. Until satisfactory information of this character shall have been furnished, the whole amount of such moneys will be held to meet the payment of his checks properly payable therefrom.
  5. At the close of each fiscal year of the Treasurer, the several Assistant Treasurers, and designated and national-bank depositories, will also render to the Secretary of the Treasury a list of all Disbursing Officers’ accounts still unclosed which have been opened on the books of their respective offices or banks more than three fiscal years, giving in each case the name and official designation of the officer, the date when the account with him was opened, and the balance remaining to his credit.
  6. In case of death, resignation, or the removal of a public Disbursing Officer, any check previously drawn by him and not presented for payment within four months of its date will not be paid until its correctness shall have been attested by the Secretary or Assistant Secretary of the Treasury.

FIELD PARK: An artillery grouping made up of the spare carriages, reserved supply of ammunition, and the tools and materials for extensive repairs and for making up ammunition for the service of the army in the field. Reserve batteries were usually attached to the field park.

FIELD TRAIN: See Artillery Train.

FIELD WORKS: Fortifications which provided a body of troops, or a town, with a secure protection against a sudden assault of superior numbers. These fortifications had parapets which were constructed of earth, field stones, or some other material capable of resisting the effects of projectiles. Field works were usually laid out by the engineers, but when an army was rapidly advancing or retreating individual soldiers would construct pits or lengths of entrenchments.

FILLET: See Molding.

FIRE ARROW: A naval term for a small iron dart, equipped with an incendiary composition for igniting the sails of a ship.

FIRE BALL: An oval projectile made of a canvass sack filled with a combustible material. An iron bottom was attached with cement to the bottom of the sack to keep the projectile from bursting. The projectile was fired into the enemy lines to light up their works and contained a shell to keep enemy soldiers from approaching close enough to extinguish the flame. Similar to a light ball.

FIRE SCREEN: A naval term for a screen of woolen material stretched across the passage-way leading to the ship’s magazine to guard against stray sparks or other accidents.

FIRE STONE: See Rock Fire.

FIXED AMMUNITION: A pre-assembled (or fixed) combination of a smoothbore projectile, sabot, and powder bag. This assembly allowed an increase in the rate of fire of the artillery crew by dispensing with two separate steps in the order of fire. See page_, figure _ for an example.

FIXED AMMUNITION: When the cartridge is attached to the projectile, the two together are termed fixed ammunition; this is employed for the service with boat-howitzers. It has the advantage of great convenience in the hurried preparations that frequently precede boat-operations, and the guns can be served the more rapidly with fixed ammunition; simultaneous loading is more simple, and the cartridge is sure to be placed correctly in the bore, and not with the choked end first, as is sometimes the case when the projectile and the cartridge are separate. Fixed ammunition has, however, the great disadvantage that in packing or stowing much greater space is required, and it is more difficult to arrange and to preserve.

The following implements are required in fixing ammunition:

Barrels for powder; 1 funnel; 1 set of powder-measures; 1 straight-edge, to strike the measure with; barrels; tubs, formed of barrels sawed in two, or boxes, for the cartridge-bags; 2 paulins; 2 benches; 12 choking-sticks, 6 with holes in them and 6 slit; 6 knives; 6 hand-barrows with 4 legs and a box, and paulins to cover them; caliber-gauges for the cartridge-bags and for fixed ammunition (they may be made of wood); 6 stools; 1 wheel-barrow; 1 mallet; 1 copper chisel; 1 copper drift, or a wrench, to open the powder-barrels.

In fixing shot or case for smooth-bore field-guns, the bags should be filled in the small magazine or filling-room. The assistant holds the pipe of the funnel in the mouth of the bag with both hands, the bag pressed close against the pipe. The gauger heaps up the measure with powder, strikes it level with the straight-edge, and pours it into the funnel. When about 25 bags are filled the gauger takes a filled bag with one hand, squeezing the bag upon the powder; he gives it a blow with the other hand on the top and bottom of the bag, twisting the mouth of the bag down upon the powder at the same time; he then tries it with the small gauge through which it should pass with not more than .25 inch play; should it not do this, the bag is emptied and rejected. These bags, filled and gauged, are placed upright in a tub or box and carried by the gaugers into the finishing-room, where the men are placed in pairs, sitting astride on a bench facing each other. One of them opens a bag and levels the powder, the other inserts the sabot of a strapped shot square upon the powder and draws up the end of the bag over the shot; the first man passes about 4 feet of twine through the pierced stick and makes two turns and a double hitch with the end at the top of the sabot; he makes a know in the end of the twine, inserts it into the slit in the other choking-stick, and tightens the double hitch by rolling the twine on the sticks and bearing upon the sabot; he then takes out the end of the twine from the slit, ties it in a hard knot, which he tightens with the assistance of the choking-stick, and cuts the twine off near the knot. The second man turns down the mouth of the bag over the sabot, and the first makes a similar tie in the groove; he makes another tie below the sabot, the twine being lodged between it and the powder to prevent the latter from sifting in between the bag and the sabot; he then runs the paper cylinder over the cartridge and sabot, leaving about two inches of the end of the cartridge uncovered, and he makes a tie similar to the others in the groove of the sabot. He now holds the shot in the left hand and examines it, striking the sabot with the right hand, if necessary, to bring it straight; if the shot be properly fixed, the sabot and the bag will have the same axis; the seams should be between two straps, and the knots should be neither on the seams nor on the straps. The assistants pass the cartridges through the large gauge, which is .04 inch larger than the large gauge for the shot. If the size be correct, they put on the paper cap, lay the cartridges on their sides in the box of the hand-barrow, and carry them to the magazine. Those which will not pass through the gauge are handed back to the fixers, who sever the strings and put them up anew.

Canisters for smooth-bore field-guns are fixed in the same manner as shot, except that the first tie is made in the upper groove of the sabot; the cylinder is tied in the lower groove. The caps must be cut somewhat shorter than those for shot-cartridges. For mountain-howitzers the sabots have but one groove, the first tie is omitted, and the cartridge is covered with a cap only. When the shot is attached to the sabot by a single band of canvas, or when it is placed in the sabot without any strap, the cartridge-bag is drawn over it and tied on top; for this purpose the bag should have an additional length of from 2 to 3 inches. When sabots cannot be obtained, place upon the powder one layer of tow about .2 inch thick, forming a bed for the shot; tie the bag over the shot and around the tow; the bag requires to be 1 inch longer than for strapped shot. See Ammunition and Field and Mountain Ammunition.

FIXED BATTERY: Siege batteries which contained siege guns and large mortars. Generally, the fixed battery was placed in enfilading positions whenever possible. The batteries used during the second period of siege-operations are both fixed and movable. The fixed batteries contain the siege-guns and mortars of the heaviest caliber and longest range; whilst the movable batteries will consist of field-guns and small mortars which can take up temporarily any favorable positions for damaging the defenses. As a general rule the fixed gun-batteries should be placed in enfilading positions whenever such can be found for them, delivering their fire always within the interior slope of the face enfiladed, and in preference taking a slant reverse direction on the terre-plein of the face. Parts of the defenses which cannot be reached by enfilade must be counter-battered by batteries which can obtain a full-front or a slant-front view upon them. The mortar-batteries will receive such positions as are most favorable for reaching the interior of the defenses; preference being given to those in which the longest lines of the defenses can be brought within the range and direction of the shells; avoiding, whenever practicable, throwing them across the positions occupied by the approaches, so as to insure a shell being landed within some point of the defenses, and to avoid the accidents from shells falling short of their butt or bursting prematurely. The positions of the fixed batteries of rifled guns and heavy mortars will be usually along the position of the first parallel and some 30 or 40 yards in advance of it, so that its service shall not interfere with that of the parallel, nor the service of the latter with it – a point of great importance for the efficient service of each; and being in advance of the parallel, the troops in the latter will not be annoyed by the discharge of the guns, which they might be were they in the rear. As the ricochet of rifled guns with elongated shot is uncertain, and, from the great range at which the guns fire, the plunge of the projectile would be necessarily great and unfavorable to ricochet, positions for fixed enfilading batteries of smooth-bore siege-guns may be taken either in advance of the second parallel or, better, in some of the demi-parallels, so as to bring them within some 500 yards of the line to be enfiladed, as the range very favorable for the ricochet of these pieces.

The number of guns in each enfilading battery will depend upon the extent of terre-plein within the works upon which an enfilade or a slant reverse fire can be obtained. Usually the number of guns should not exceed seven, nor be less than three; the number being regulated by the importance to the besieged of the line enfiladed. In each counter-battery there should be at least as many guns as the defenses can bring to bear upon it; always enough to completely control the fire of the point counter-battered. Whilst batteries containing a large number of guns are exposed to greater casualties than smaller ones, weak batteries are liable to be silenced by a concentrated fire upon them from the defenses. As a general rule, batteries at different distances should be so placed that the more advanced should not be in the line of fire of those in the rear. The danger from accidents from a violation of this rule is not very great if the batteries are several hundred yards apart, and the point fired at distant; or until the trenches get near the position of the third parallel. At this stage great precaution is necessary in regulating the fire so that the shot may not fall into or explode too near the trenches. See Batteries and Movable Battery.

FLAME GROOVE: A groove cut or cast into the body and/or the sabot of the projectile to allow the flame from the powder charge to pass over to ignite the time fuze. The gunners would sometimes cut these grooves in the field when fuzes were damaged or otherwise impaired

FLANGE: A projecting rim or ridge on the body of a projectile. The flange would guide the projectile through the grooves of the bore and cause it to rotate. See page _, figure _, for an example.

FLASK: A box containing sand which formed the mold during the projectile casting process at the foundry.

FLYING ARTILLERY: See Horse Artillery.

FOOT ARTILLERY SWORD: Also called Short Sword. Patterned after the sword carried by the ancient Roman soldiers, this weapon had a straight, two-edged blade. The one-piece hilt was brass and was without a basket guard. Several pommel designs were manufactured ranging from a plain button to an eagle’s head. The scabbard was black leather with brass furnishings. This sword was mainly ornamental rather than defensive.

FORCING CONE: A ring of lead or other material which was fitted on the rear tapered (cone) portion of a projectile. When the projectile was fired, the ring was forced up the cone and expanded, thus enabling it to fit the lands and grooves of the bore.

FORGE: A two-wheeled carriage which carried a blacksmith forge, tools, 300 pounds of horseshoes, hardware, nails, irons, and other items. It was linked to a limber to form a four-wheeled vehicle.

FORT: A permanent defensive structure which contained a garrison. Early forts were constructed of brick or stone and usually had a moat surrounding them. During the Civil War, forts were earthen and considerably smaller than the masonry structures. Forts often had a series of field works protecting them from attack by infantry. Most forts contained permanent buildings for troop quarters, kitchen, hospital, and other duty areas.

FORTIFICATION: 1) A generic term for field works, forts, and fortresses. Most fortifications of this type had, at the most basic, a rampart and parapet. 2) Natural fortifications consisted of objects formed by nature, which were capable of impeding the advance of an enemy.

FORTRESS: A fortified city or town, or any piece of ground so strongly fortified that it was capable of resisting an attack carried on against it.

FRENCH PROJECTILE: The projectile used in the French field-service is made of cast-iron, and has twelve zinc studs on its sides, arranged in pairs, so as to fit the six grooves of the gun. For the larger cannon-projectiles but three studs are used, and these are cast on the projectile, nearly opposite to its center of gravity; the bearing sides of the studs are faced with white metal to diminish friction against the grooves of the bore. The shape of the grooves is such as to center the projectile. The latter projectile is used with increasing, the former with grooves of uniform, twist. Russian, Austrian, and Spanish artillery projectiles belong to this studded or button class, but differ from each other in the details of their construction. See Compression-projectiles and Projectiles.

FRICTION PRIMER: A small brass or quill tube, known as the priming tube, filled with gunpowder and used to send a flame to the powder charge inside the bore. It was ignited by pulling an attached rough wire quickly through a friction composition contained in a second tube. The resulting flame was transferred through the tube and into the powder bag in the bore. A lanyard was used to pull the wire.

FULMINATE OF MERCURY : A chemical composition which exploded with great heat and violence when ignited. It was used in percussion caps, fuzes, and primers.

FUNNEL: A copper funnel used to pour bursting charges from the powder measure into the projectiles.

FURNACE: Constructed in forts or fortresses to heat shot for use as hot shot. A furnace could hold sixty shots at a time.

FUZE: Fuzes for projectiles may be classified as time-fuzes, percussion-fuzes, and combination-fuzes. The time-fuze serves to explode a projectile during flight, or at the end of a given period of time after its discharge from the gun. The percussion-fuze, rifled guns, serves to explode a projectile either during flight or on impact.

Time-fuzes – The time-fuze is composed of a column or ring of fuze-composition, driven or pressed into a suitable metal, wood, or paper case. The proportions of the composition vary according to the time it is intended to burn. The service time-fuzes comprise three varieties, viz., wooden-case mortar-fuzes, metal-case (Bormann) fuzes, and paper-case fuzes.

Fuzes for Mortar-shells – The hard, close-grained woods are best adapted for making fuzes; beech or ash is generally used. It should be dry, sound, free from sap, knots, worm-holes, or shakes. To turn the fuze-plug, a helper saws the plank into lengths equal to that of the fuze, and then into prisms, taking off the edges, and centering it on each end. The turner puts the fuze-plug thus roughed out in the lathe, turns its exterior, and graduates it, by means of a steel gauge, into inches and tenths of an inch, commencing at the bottom of the cup. When a number have been turned, the turner puts each fuze-plug into a chuck, bores it, and makes the cup with a tool for that purpose. The fuze-plugs should be carefully inspected, and verified with gauges, and those rejected which have splits, knots, or worm-holes, or which have not the proper dimensions. One turner can turn 500 fuze-plugs, or turn and bore 250, in ten hours.

The following utensils are required for driving the fuzes: driving-blocks, with holes of the size of the fuze-plug; benches; mallets for the 13-inch, 10-inch and 8-inch fuzes weighing 1 pound, for smaller fuzes weighing to pounds; steel drifts, shod with copper, the shortest with a mark .2 inch from the end, copper ladles, to contain sufficient composition to make a height, when driven, equal to one diameter of the bore; copper pans; brushes.

The composition for 8- and 10-inch light mortar-fuzes is 2 parts of niter, 1 of sulphur, and 3 of mealed powder; for 10- and 13-inch heavy mortars, 2 of niter, 1 of sulphur, and 2 of mealed powder. The composition must be thoroughly ground and mixed with a muller, or in a leathern barrel with brass balls. The time of burning will vary according to the quality of the materials used (especially of the mealed powder) and the degree of their admixture. Trials should be made with each composition by driving several fuzes and getting their time of burning. There should not be any great variation in the times of burning of the different fuzes of the same composition. Fuze-composition should be prepared only a short time before being used, and should be preserved in close vessels in a dry place.

When driving, the workman is seated, his driving-block in front of him, and a bench to hold a pan of composition at his right hand. He takes a fuze, cleans it of all foreign matter, inserting the drift to the bottom of the bore. He then drops the fuze-plug into the driving-hole, takes a ladleful of composition, passing the drift along the edges of the ladle to strike off the surplus; pours the composition into the fuze-plug, strikes it two gentle blows with the mallet, inserts the drift, pressing it down on the composition, giving the fuze two slight blows to settle the composition. The workman strikes the drift twenty-one blows in volleys of three, raising the mallet about one foot each blow, and moving the drift after each volley. He puts in another ladleful, and continues as for the first. Care should be taken to put in equal charges of composition each time, and to give to each ladleful the same number of blows and with the same force. Fuzes are often driven by pressure in a screw-press.

Fuzes are all driven to the same height by means of a mark on the short drift, or the composition is bored out with the gouge to the same depth. They are primed with mealed powder for about .2 inch, driven with the same force as a ladleful of composition. The cup is filled with a paste of mealed powder and spirits of wine or strong whiskey, and laid aside to dry; it is then covered with a small piece of paper, over which is pasted a cap of strong, water-proof paper, marked with the number of seconds the fuze burns to the inch.

Time-fuze for Guns – This fuze consists of a paper case charged with fuze-composition; it is inserted, at the time of loading the gun, into a brass or wooden plug previously driven into the fuze hole of the shell. The following utensils are required for making the cases: pattern of wood, in the form of a rectangle joined to a trapezoid; iron former, .35 inch diameter; knife; glue-pot; brushes.

The paper is cut to the proper size by means of the pattern. The whole length of the strip must be determined by a trial for each kind of paper, to give the case the proper diameter. The strip is rolled hard on the former, beginning with the large end, and is glued after the first turn. When the case is dry, it is smoothed with a fine file or sand-paper.

The paper is cut to the proper size by means of the pattern. The whole length of the strip must be determined by a trial for each kind paper, to give the case the proper diameter. The strip is rolled hard on the former, beginning with the large end, and is glued after the first turn. When the case is dry, it is smoothed with a fine file or sand-paper.

There are different compositions used, one inch burning 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 seconds respectively. Their time of burning is subject to considerable variation, according to the quality of the ingredients and the manipulation in mixing them; the exact proportions must be determined by experiment. The composition is carefully mixed, and several fuzes are first driven and their times of burning determined, and the proportions varied, if necessary, to produce the required result.

The following utensils are required for driving the fuzes: brass molds in two parts, which are held together by a wedge or cam; the molds have holes for four or five fuzes; steel drifts, .35 inch diameter; knife; mallet, weighing pound.

The mold is put together and secured; the empty cases are inserted and driven gently in; their upper ends, projecting above the mold, are slit with a knife into four parts. The composition is put in and driven as described above, giving 15 blows to each ladleful, which will make .25 inch in length of the fuze. They are next primed by covering the larger ends with shellac varnish and dipping them into rifle-powder; when the priming has set, the entire fuze, except the priming, receives a coat of shellac varnish. The fuze is stained the proper color, according to the composition used, and the number of seconds that one inch will burn is marked on each fuze.

To cut the fuze it is inserted in an iron gauge, the bore of which is the same size and taper as the fuze, and its width is the true length of the fuze – 2 inches. The projecting ends of the fuze are first sawed off with a fine saw and then trimmed with a knife. They are packed in wooden blocks (poplar), bored to receive five fuzes each, and these blocks are wrapped in various-colored paper, to distinguish the different times of burning, having a printed label setting forth the kind of fuze, and place and date of manufacture, etc.

The fuzes are applied to projectiles by inserting them in wood or metal plugs, which are driven or screwed into the fuze-hole of the projectile. For sea-coast service, the paper-case time-fuze is inserted in a metallic plug fitting the projectile. The metallic plug is fitted with a screw-cap, called a water-cap, having a crooked passage, through which, by suitable priming, flame is communicated to the fuze, and the escaping gases are intended to exert sufficient pressure to prevent the entrance of water to extinguish the fuze, especially with spherical projectiles.

The insertion of the fuze in the rear end of the rifle-projectile has been proposed to dispense with the use of the water-cap, but the enormous force exerted upon the projectile, while in the gun, has been a serious obstacle to the practical use of a rear fuze.

Fuzes for Smooth-bore Field-guns and Mountain-howitzers – A fuze for shells and spherical case-shot for field and mountain service is that known as the "Bormann fuze." It consists of a circular disk of soft metal, containing an annular space charged with mealed powder. The outer circumference of the disk is chased with the threads of a screw to secure it in the shell. The annular space for the composition is concentric with the outer circumference, and connects at one end by a hole with a small magazine in the center of the disk, filled with rifle-powder, and closed on the under surface by a thin disk of tin. The fuze is charged from the under side by pressure, and a ring of the same metal is pressed firmly on the composition. The composition is thus securely protected from accidents, and the fuze is screwed into the shell in the laboratory. The metal covering the composition on top, being left thin, is easily cut with a knife or cutter at the moment of loading, and the composition exposed at the required point to the action of the flame. The graduations into seconds and quarter-seconds are marked on the upper surface of the disk. The time of burning of the whole length of fuze is 5 seconds.

The following utensils are required for casting the fuze: molds for the fuze; molds for the ring; hacksaw; nippers; mallet; kettle; ladle.

Melt the lead and tin together; heat the molds so as not to chill the metal is casting. Fill the mold with the melted metal, and tap it gently with the mallet to make the metal fill the small parts. Cut off the gate with the saw, and the ends of the ring with the nippers. It has been found convenient in opening and closing the molds to attach the two parts of the mold for the fuze and also for the ring to the jaws of a bench-vise, so that both molds are opened and closed by the same movement of the screw. The fuze-mold is kept hot by means of iron disks, which are heated and hung on the arbor which supports the molds. A mold of more approved pattern has been devised by which the casting is expedited.

The following utensils are required for charging the fuze: as strong screw-press; annular charger the size of the ring; annular drift; flat drift; round drift.

Take the mold in which the fuze was cast, place the fuze in the parts of the mold containing the screw and the upper or graduated side, and secure the mold by a ring driven on it. Draw up the piston, and fill the charger by pressing it into the mealed powder contained in a shallow pan; place the charger over the groove and force down the piston, transferring the powder into the fuze; insert the button in the magazine and the pin in the priming-hole to preserve their shapes; place the ring on the powder, and, with the annular drift, force it down by means of a strong screw-press, bringing the ring flush with the surface of the fuze; rivet the ring in its place with another drift; withdraw the button and the pin, charge the priming-hole with rifle-powder, and fill the magazine with musket-powder; cover the magazine with a disk of tin, and rivet it in place by means of, first, a flat drift, and then a round one, which turns down a part of the metal of the fuze over the disk. Remove the fuze from the mold, place it in a screw-chuck made to fit it, and turn off in a lathe the lower surface smooth and to the proper thickness. The powder of the fuze is now perfectly sealed up from the air. The fuze should be varnished.

The following table shows the principal dimensions and weights of the service-fuzes:

 

Dimensions and Weights

Wooden Fuzes.

Paper Fuzes.

13 inch. 10-inch. 8-inch.
Fuze………Whole length….………………………..……inches.

Diameter………At top…………………………..do.

At bottom…………..…………..do.

Of bore…………………………do.

First cone…Length…………………..………………………..do.

Diameter at lower end…..………………………..do.

Cup……….Depth………………………..……………………do.

Diameter….At top……….………………………do.

At bottom…………….……………..do.

Thickness of wood at bottom of fuze.………….……………..do.

Length of composition………………………….…………….do.

Drifts……..Diameter……………………………..…………..do.

Length, exclusive of handle……First…..……….do.

Second…..…….do.

Weight……Of composition for 100 fuzes……………….pounds

Of 100 fuzes complete……………………..……do.

Paper for the case…………Whole length………………..…..do.

Length of rectangle……….…..…do.

Width of rectangle………………do.

Width of small end………………do.

10.8

1.85

1.25

.4

2.8

1.65

.6

1.25

.9

1.2

9

.36

9

4.5

8

54

……..

……..

……..

……..

9.4

1.7

1

.3

2.25

1.55

.5

1

.8

.9

8

.27

8

4

4

33

……..

……..

……..

……..

6.3

1.25

.9

.3

1.25

1.15

.4

.75

.6

.9

5

.27

8

4

2.5

16

……..

……..

……..

……..

2

.53

.4

.35

……..

……..

……..

……..

……..

……..

2

.3

……..

……..

2

……..

19

6

2.25

.4

Bormann Fuze.

Diameter of fuze, including threads…………………………………………………………… 1.64 inch.

Thickness……………………………………………………………………………………… .45 inch.

Number of threads to the inches………………………………………………………………... 12
Diameter of plug, including threads…………………………………………………………… 1.07 inch.
Thickness for field-guns………………………………………………………………………. .3 inch.
Number of threads to the inch…………………………………………………………………. 12
 

Percussion-fuzes – Many varieties of fuzes have been used in service, under the names of percussion and concussion fuzes. Among the simpler ones, the Absterdam, Hotchkiss, Parrott, and Schenkl may be named. They are much alike in their general features. They consist of hollow metallic screw-plugs to fit the fuze-hole of the projectiles. A loosely fitting plunger is inserted in the bore of the plug, the front end of which is closed by a screw-plug or cap. On the forward end of the plunger a percussion-cap, or rather detonating device, is arranged, to be exploded and communicate fire to the bursting-charge, through an opening at the rear, by the plunger striking the plug or cap when the motion of the projectile is arrested. Various safety devices are used, having sufficient strength to prevent the plunger being thrown forward by shocks in transportation, etc., but weak enough to be broken by the shock of discharge, or impact of the projectile, as the case may be.

Combination-fuzes – Many varieties of combination-fuzes have been proposed and tested, but without satisfactory results. This variety of fuze would be best adapted to general service if perfected. If a perfect combination-fuze can be made, none other would be required, as it would have the properties of the other two, capable of use separately or combined. Granting certainty of ignition of the time element, only one kind of fuze would be required for all kinds of service. A good one should possess, in one structure, the properties of the most perfect time- and impact-fuzes. It should be simple in construction, safe to handle and transport, and easily applied to the projectile.

It is the opinion of many who have given the subject much study that no fulminate or friction composition should enter into its construction, except perhaps to insure the ignition of the time element of the combination. Certainty of ignition by the gases in the gun is not always attainable, especially with rifle-projectiles and breech-loading cannon which have but slight windage; therefore some form of inertia igniter is necessary. Such igniters are simple and easily made, and may be arranged for attachment to the fuze at the last moment before loading the gun, thereby avoiding all risk of accident in transportation, etc. The above conditions exclude all but a few of the devices subjected to trial, and the subject is still unsettled and under test. No one variety of the many offered for test has given sufficiently satisfactory results to warrant its adoption.

It is impossible that any species of fuze should be absolutely perfect. When suitable opportunities for observation occur, it is noticed that in firing a number of shells many do not explode. the failure of the composition to ignite is probably generally due to the absorption of moisture; and therefore all fuzes which have been more than one year in service should be returned to the laboratory. Fuzes of over two years’ date of manufacture should not be issued for service. Sometimes the fuze is extinguished after having been ignited. This may occur when the shell ricochets on soil or water. Water is not so detrimental as sand, and the fuze is rarely extinguished by several ricochets upon it. Generally the gases evolved by the combustion of the composition will repel with great energy any obtrusive matter which would extinguish the fuze if once in contact with the ignited surface.

Premature explosions may be caused by the increase of the ignited surface of the composition resulting from cracks in the case or composition itself, or by interstices between the case and composition; and in proportion to the extent of this cause so will be the increased celerity of the combustion. Crevices may occur in the composition from some defect in the tools or in the mode of using them, or they may be created by bending the case. It may also happen that the displacement of the shell by the charge of the gun will force in the column of composition or the case with it. This would of course cause the shell to explode very quickly. The shell may be defective in thickness or quality of metal, and be crushed by the force of the discharge, when the explosion will take place in or near the gun. The bursting of the shell near the muzzle of the gun is sometimes attributed to the detonating qualities of the powder in the shell. It is manifest that the premature explosion of shells is far more detrimental to their efficiency than the failure to be exploded at all. See Absterdam Percussion-fuze, Bormann Fuze, Boxer-fuze, Concussion-fuze, Percussion-fuze, Electric Fuzes, Fire-works, Hotchkiss Percussion-fuze, McIntire Fuzes, Mortar-fuze, Schenkl Percussion-fuze, Seacoast-fuze, Splingard Fuze.

FUZE-AUGER: An instrument for regulating the time of burning of a fuze by removing a certain portion of the composition. It consists of a steel bit, fastened into a wooden handle, at the lower end of which is a brass socket, with a bar, under which a graduated limb of the slider moves. The bit fits into the slider, and is by a steel thumb-screw fastened to it in any required position. The position of the slider, which determines the depth to which the auger bores, is regulated by a fine scale attached to it by a screw.

FUZE-BLOCK: A simple contrivance for holding paper time-fuzes when being cut. It consists of two blocks of wood hinged together so as to open and shut after the manner of a book. In each end is a recess into which the fuze is placed, and where it is securely held by pressing the blocks tightly together. The fuze is put in with the small end extending out of the end of the block, the point at which it is to be cut being even with the end of the block. Along one side of the recess is attached the brass scale. This was intended for fuzes of obsolete pattern. As now made, each fuze is divided into as many equal parts as the number of seconds for which its entire length (two inches) is intended to burn. These parts are marked, and are, the guides in cutting the fuze; the latter operation being performed with the fuze-knife, which is a very sharp and thin-bladed knife (preferably a shoe-knife), or a fine saw.

FUZE-EXTRACTOR: An implement used for extracting wooden fuzes from the fuze-hole, when they have been too firmly driven to be withdrawn by the shell plug-screw, or in any other way. It consists of an inner screw and stem of steel, riveted to an iron handle, and contained in a hollow steel screw, which works up and down by means of an iron nut with two handles. The hollow screw is prevented from turning by a slot and a feather in the frame, which is of brass. The nut is kept in place by four iron set-screws, the points of which enter into a groove in the nut. To extract a fuze, the bottom of the frame is placed on the shell over the fuze-head, and the inner screw screwed into the fuze by means of the upper handle. The handles of the nut are then turned, which raises the hollow screw, and with it the inner screw and the fuze.

FUZE-HOLE: The hole in a shell prepared for the reception of the fuze-stock. The loss of force by the fuze-hole may be ascertained with sufficient accuracy, provided we know from an actual experiment the amount of the loss from the fuze-hole of any one shell.

Let R and r be the exterior and interior radii of a spherical projectile; T, the tenacity of the metal; I, the radius of the fuze-hole; w’, the weight of powder necessary to burst it under the supposition that there is no loss of force at the fuze-hole; w, the weight of powder that is actually required to burst it. By formulas approved we obtain the value of w’; w – w’ is therefore the amount of loss from the fuze-hole. Take another projectile, and let w’, represent the charge which is necessary to burst it, under the supposition that there is no loss, and w, the weight that is found by experiment necessary to burst it; w, - w’ will represent the loss. We are at liberty to suppose the loss from the two fuze-holes is proportional to the size of the holes, and the density of the gases at the moment of rupture; we shall therefore have this proportion:

From the experiments made at Metz in 1835, it was shown that this mode of estimating the loss of force by the fuze-hole was sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. See Bouching and Shells.

FUZE-MALLET: An implement for setting the fuze home. It is cylindrical in shape, with a handle on one end, and is turned out of a single piece of dogwood, oak, or other hard wood.

FUZE-PLUG: Fuze plugs are made of brass or of close-grained wood, well seasoned. They are turned to a size a little larger than the fuze-hole, but of the same taper, - 2.5 inches long; a hole is bored through the axis and reamed out to receive the paper fuze, and the large end is counterbored and tapped to receive the water-cap. If a wooden plug be used, a short, hollow cylinder of brass, .5 inch long, .15 inch thick, is inserted in the recess before the plug is driven, and afterwards tapped to receive the water-cap.

The water-cap, shown in the drawing, is a plug of brass, .5 inch long, .6 inch in diameter, chased with 12 threads to the inch. One end has a shallow recess cut in it, .1 inch deep, larger at bottom than at top; a hole .1 inch in diameter is bored through the middle of the cap, and a hole is bored from either end into this transverse hole, but meeting it at points .25 inch or more apart; these and the recess in the end are filled with mealed-powder paste. Diameter of hole at bottom of recess, .53 inch; at small end, .4 inch.

A little shellac is brushed around the safety-plug and lower end of fuze-plug; also around the leaden patch and top of stock. A pasteboard cap is put on over the safety-plug end of the fuze-plug to prevent the plug from being broken off, and the fuzes thus prepared are stowed in boxes. See Fuze and Water-cap.

FUZE REAMER: The implement used to enlarge the hole in a fuze-plug so as to make it of the proper size for the paper fuze.

FUZE SETTER: An implement for setting wooden fuzes in the fuze-hole. It is made of brass; the bottom is countersunk and cup-shaped, to prevent it from slipping off from the head of the fuze.

FUZE-WRENCH: A three pronged wrench used for setting fuze-plugs that are to be screwed into the shell. One prong contains forks for the fuze-plug, and another one smaller forks for the water-cap.

FUZE: The device employed in a shell for the purpose of igniting the bursting charge and causing the shell to explode. Fuzes were classified in four categories: time, percussion, combination, and concussion. Metal fuzes were threaded and screwed into the fuze hole while paper fuzes were tapered and driven by a hammer into a wooden fuze plug or adapter.

FUZE ADAPTER: See Fuze Plug.

FUZE AUGER: A tool used to reduce the length of the powder composition column in a paper time fuze after it had been set in the projectile. The auger consisted of a bit which fit inside a graduated slider scale. The bit was set to the appropriate depth according to the slider. The auger then forced the bit into the fuze and removed the powder.

FUZE BLOCK: See Fuze Measure.

FUZE CUTTER: Also known as fuze punch or fuze gouge. A steel chisel, with a brass or wooden handle designed for cutting into the powder train in a Bormann time fuze.

FUZE ENGINE: See Fuze Extractor.

FUZE EXTRACTOR: Also known to artillerists as a Fuze Engine. It was used to remove fuzes from the wooden fuze holders when they had been driven in too far. The inner screw and its stem were made of steel and riveted into the iron handle. The stem was contained in a hollow screw of steel which was worked up and down by means of an iron nut with two handles. The bottom of the frame was placed over the fuze head and the inner screw was twisted into the fuze by means of the upper handle. The handles of the nut were then turned and the screw bit into the fuze and twisted it out.

FUZE GOUGE: See Fuze Cutter.

FUZE HOLDER: See Fuze Plug.

FUZE HOLE: A circular opening manufactured into spherical and elongated shells to admit a fuze, fuze plug, or fuze holder. Fuze holes were threaded or smooth depending on the type fuze intended for the shell.

FUZE IMPLEMENT: Nomenclature given to tools used to prepare and set the fuze systems for artillery projectiles. The included the Fuze Auger, Fuze Cutter (Punch), Fuze Extractor, Fuze Mallet, Fuze Measure, Fuze Reamer, Fuze Saw, Fuze Setter, and Fuze Wrench.

FUZE MALLET: A wooden hammer made of one solid piece of dogwood or oak. It was used to drive fuzes and fuze plugs into projectiles.

FUZE MEASURE: Also known as a Fuze Block. A wooden block or board with graduated scales used to measure the length of various paper time fuzes.

FUZE PLUG: Sometimes called a fuze adapter or fuze holder. A metal or wood device that was set into the fuze hole to hold a paper time fuze. Metal fuze plugs were made of brass, copper, lead, or pewter and screwed into the hole. Wooden fuze holders were driven by a fuze mallet into the hole. The wooden fuze plug was tapered to cause a close seal.

FUZE PUNCH: See Fuze Cutter.

FUZE REAMER: An implement used to enlarge the hole in a fuze plug for proper fitting of the plug.

FUZE SAW: A small saw, with a 10-inch iron blade, used to cut wooden fuzes to the desired length.

FUZE SETTER: A brass cylinder 5- to 6-inches in length and 2-inches in diameter. It was used to seat a wooden fuze holder into the fuze hole of a shell.

GABION: Large cylindrical basket made of woven twigs and open at both ends. Gabions were used to reinforce earthen fortifications and to repair damage to works caused by artillery fire. After the gabion was put into position it was filled with earth allowing it to protect the defenders against small arms fire.

GABIONNADE: A parapet built of gabions.

GAGE: The caliber of a gun.

GALLOPER: A carriage on which very small guns were conveyed.

GARRISON: 1) Infantry, or other military units, assigned to service in a fort or fortress. These soldiers had permanent quarters and duty areas. 2) Artillery assigned to a garrison. See Siege and Garrison Artillery.

GARRISON ARTILLERY: See Siege and Garrison Artillery.

GATE: The opening or passage through which molten metal was poured or run into a mold in projectile manufacturing.

GATE WASTE: The piece of metal which remained in the gate opening after completion of the casting of a projectile. The waste piece of metal was normally removed during the finishing process.

GIMLET: A heavy metal wire with a wooden handle on one end and a screw at the other. It was used to remove broken friction primers or other obstructions from the vent of a tube.

GIN: A large tripod fitted with a windlass and a series of blocks and tackles. It was used to mount heavy guns and move large projectiles and other equipment. A field gin could be transported with field batteries while a garrison gin was much larger and was permanently mounted.

GOMER CHAMBER: See Chamber.

GRAPESHOT: Iron balls which, when bound together, formed a stand of grapeshot. Also known as "grape." See Stand of Grape.

GRATE: Used to heat shot in siege batteries, or other situations where no furnace was available and hot shot was desired. The grate consisted of four iron bars placed about 4 inches apart resting on three iron stands about 1 foot high.

GRAZE: A term used by artillerist to denote the first touch of a projectile on horizontal ground after being fired from the weapon.

GREASE: See Tar.

GREASE BUCKET: See Tar Bucket.

GREEK FIRE: Incendiary material used against fortified towns and cities. The composition was contained in tin tubes, 3-inches long, closed at one end and primed with powder and coal tar. These were placed inside a shell and fired at the target. When the shell exploded, the tin tubes were ignited and the flaming composition spilled out, setting fires. Although Greek Fire was very seldom used, reports record its use during the siege of Charleston, South Carolina, among others.

GRENADE: A shell which was manually propelled against an attacking enemy. Many grenades were shells which were defective and unfit for firing, but six-pound spherical case-shot was used frequently. These shells were usually ignited by a short fuze, or had a percussion system contained internally which exploded upon impact. The most common grenade was the hand grenade which, as the name implies, was thrown by hand. Examples of hand grenades were Adams, Ketchum, Hanes Excelsior, and Rains (Confederate). A rampart grenade was a much larger shell and was usually rolled down the ramparts of a fortification against an attacking enemy.

GROOVES: See Rifling.

GUN: 1) A term of classification: artillery weapon with a long barrel designed to throw a solid shot at a long range, using a low elevation angle. The gun had no chamber and used a heavy powder charge. 2) Generic term: any artillery weapon or cannon. 3) Small-arm weapon such as pistol, musket, rifle, or carbine.

GUN BOAT: A large boat fitted with a gun in the bow or amidships. During the Civil War the term applied to light-draught steamers armed with guns, or to iron clad boats. These boats were used on the coast and navigable rivers.

GUN COTTON: Cotton immersed in a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids, then washed with water and dried. This process made the cotton highly explosive and it could be used in lieu of gunpowder. Gun cotton saw limited use in the Civil War.

GUN CREW: See Artillery Crew.

GUN HEAD: Metal which was added to the muzzle of the tube during casting in order to compensate for shrinkage during cooling. Also called a shrink head.

GUN PORT: An opening in the side of a ship to accommodate the muzzle of the gun. The gun port was covered by a half port shutter.

GUN SHOT: A term used to indicate the range of a cannon shot.

GUN STONE: A stone fired from a cannon in place of a cannon ball.

GUNNAGE: A naval term for the number of guns in a ship-of-war.

GUNNER: The member of an artillery crew, usually the sergeant, who was responsible for giving the orders for cleaning, loading, and firing the weapon. The gunner was usually the member who actually fired the weapon.

GUNNER’S HAVERSACK: See Haversack.

GUNNER’S IMPLEMENTS: Nomenclature given to those tools used by the artillery gunner to prepare the weapon for firing. These included calipers, elevating arc, level (perpendicular), pinchers, plummet, pouch, and quadrant.

GUNNER’S LEVEL: Also known as gunner’s perpendicular. It was made of sheet brass with the lower point cut in the form of a crescent. The points of the crescent were made of steel. A small spirit level was attached parallel to the points and a sliding scale was fastened perpendicular to the axis of the level. The instrument was used to mark the points of sight on siege guns and mortars when the platform was not level.

GUNNER’S MATE: A rank for the assistant gunner in the navy.

GUNNER’S PINCHERS: A steel pair of jaws with iron handles used for grasping and removing any debris that extended above the vent. A nail puller was forged into the end of one handle.

GUNNER’S POUCH: A leather pouch, which fastened to the waist belt and contained the gunner’s level, gimlet, vent punch, and chalk.

GUNNER’S QUADRANT: A graduated metal or wood quadrant. The quadrant was a quarter of a circle (6-inch radius) attached to a rule, 23.5-inches long. A plummet, or plumb-line and bob, was attached to the center of the curve. The quadrant was used to determine the required degree of elevation of the piece.

GUNPOWDER: The proportion of ingredients for use in the gunpowder produced during the Civil War was 75% saltpetre, 15% charcoal, and 10% sulphur. Charcoal was the combustible ingredient while the sulphur furnished the oxygen necessary to support a rapid combustion. Sulphur was also needed to change gunpowder into the gas necessary to cause the projectile to move through the bore of the weapon. Powder was produced as coarse grains for cannon and fine grains for small arms.

HALF PORT: A naval term for the gun port shutter. It had a hole in the center which fit around the projecting muzzle of a cannon.

HAND CART: A two-wheeled wooden cart fitted with two shafts, joined together at the ends, and supported immediately in front of the body by iron legs, similar to the modern wheelbarrow. It was used for the transportation of light ordnance supplies over short distances.

HAND GRENADE: See Grenade.

HAND SLING CART: See Sling Cart.

HANDLES: See Dolphins, Ears.

HANDSPIKE: Metal or wooden poles of various sizes inserted in the trail of cannon and used for maneuvering cannon to the left or right. On field pieces, the trail handspike was 53-inches in length. The maneuvering handspike was used for garrison and seacoast carriages and gins and was 66-inches long, while that used for siege and other heavy work was 84-inches in length. The shod handspike was used for mortars and their casemate and barbette carriages. The truck and roller handspikes were wrought iron and used for casemate carriages.

HAUSSE SIGHT: See Pendulum-Hausse Sight.

HAVERSACK: 1) In artillery service: a leather bag, with a leather flap affixed, used to carry the powder bag cartridge from the limber to the weapon. The haversack was usually reserved for field pieces and mortars and its use was supposed to prevent accidents while the cartridges were being transported. 2) In other branches of service: a leather or linen bag issued to the individual soldier and used to carry rations.

HEAVY METAL: An unofficial term used for guns or shot of large caliber.

HORSE ARTILLERY: A highly maneuverable artillery unit in which all the cannoneers were mounted. These units were especially adapted for use with cavalry, for sudden attacks upon particular points, and for supporting the advance or covering the retreat of an army.

HORSE TEAM: Transported artillery and artillerist to different points on the battlefield and on marches. In the Union army, six draught horses were assigned to each field weapon and its limber; the Confederate army often used four horses. Additional draught horse teams were used to haul the caissons and supply wagons. Individual saddle mounts were required for officers, sergeants, buglers, guidon bearers, and horse artillerist. Reserve and packhorses also traveled with a battery. Heavy artillery, including siege weapons, required greater numbers of horses while light artillery, assigned to the cavalry or organized as horse artillery, used fewer animals.

HOT SHOT: A solid shot projectile which was heated white- or red-hot in a specially constructed furnace. Its purpose was to set fire to wooden ships or wooden buildings inside fortifications. Fired with a reduced powder charge, the shot split and splintered the wood which made it favorable for burning. The red-hot balls did not set fire to the wood immediately, but smoldered for some time before causing flame. Furnaces for heating the shot were erected at the site of seacoast batteries, while grates were used for temporary positions. After properly heating the furnace, a 24-pounder could be heated red-hot in twenty-five minutes.

HOT SHOT FORK: A large iron fork, with two prongs which curved inward and upward, used to carry hot shot from the furnace or grate to the muzzle of the weapon.

HOWITZER: A short-barreled weapon with a large powder chamber. Howitzers were lighter and fired shells with lower powder charges at higher elevations, but lower ranges than guns of the same caliber.

HURTER: The beam, or joist, on a gun platform which prevented the wheels from striking the parapet when run in battery.

IMPETUS: The altitude through which a heavy body had to fall in order to acquire a velocity equal to that with which a ball was discharged from a piece of ordnance.

INCENDIARY SHELL: A hollow projectile with two compartments separated by a thin wall. The front compartment contained the bursting charge and the rear compartment held the flammable mixture. Valenciennes composition, composed of fifty parts nitre, twenty-eight of sulphur, eighteen of antimony, and six of rosin, was a common incendiary solution. The cotton, or other material, was soaked in the flammable fluid and loaded through a hole in the base of the projectile. A threaded bolt was used to close this opening. A Mr. Fleming and Mr. Alfred Berney were two pioneers in the development of other incendiary compositions. The purpose of this type shell was to set fire to buildings, powder magazines, shipping, and stockades. Incendiary Parrott projectiles were fired into Petersburg, Va. and Charleston, S.C.

INDENTED LINE: See Cremaillere.

INITIAL VELOCITY: The speed at which a projectile left the muzzle of a weapon. Initial velocity was measured in feet per second.

INSIGNIA: The insignia for the U.S. Army Artillery Corps consisted of two brass crossed cannon tubes for hat identification. The small tubes designated light, or field, artillery, while the large tubes signified heavy artillery units. Buttons for the enlisted men were similar to the other branches except the shield on the eagle carried the letter "A". Officers’ epaulettes had a scarlet background and all uniforms were trimmed in scarlet. The Hardee hat cord was also scarlet. The Confederate Army also used the scarlet designation, but the standard issued button had a large "A" in either Roman block or script.

IRON: Used in the manufacturing of projectiles and cannon tubes, as well as certain carriages. Iron, for tube manufacturing, was less expensive than bronze and was more capable of sustaining heavy siege firing with larger charges of powder. Conversely, iron was heavier and less tenacious than bronze.

KETCH: See Bomb-Ketch.

KNOB: See Cascabel.

LADLE: 1) Used to remove projectiles from pieces when firing was not desired. The ladle was made of sheet brass affixed to a wooded head and adapted for a shaft. It was designed to be shoved under the projectile and withdrawn from the tube. 2) Used for carrying shot, or hot shot, to the artillery piece. This type ladle consisted of an iron ring and from one to three handles, depending on the size of the shot being transported. Large shot required two or three men to transport.

LANDS: See Rifling.

LANYARD: Made of a strong twisted cord, 12-feet long, with a wooden handle attached at one end and a iron hook at the other. The lanyard hook was attached to the eye in the serrated wire of the friction primer after the primer was seated into the vent. The gunner would grip the wooden handle and pull the lanyard quickly, thereby causing the wire to pull through the primer, causing a spark. This would ignite the powder charge in the tube.

LATHE DIMPLE: A drilled or countersunk depression found on the base or sabot of rifled projectiles. This was the true center of the projectile and this was where the lathe arbor held the projectile in place while being turned on a lathe.

LATHE DOG: A raised area on the body of a projectile, also referred to as a lathe lug or notch. Its purpose was to keep the projectile from slipping as it was being turned to bore tolerance on the lathe. It was usually chipped off with a chisel when the projectile was completed, but it is not uncommon to find projectiles with the lathe dog intact. On Confederate rifled projectiles, the lathe dog is found on the ogive or nose.

LATHE LUG: See Lathe Dog.

LIFTING JACK: A geared screw-type jack for lifting heavy weights. These were used in moving heavy artillery.

LIGHT BALL: An oval projectile made of a canvass sack filled with combustible material. An iron bottom was attached with cement to the bottom of the sack to keep the projectile from bursting. It differed from a fire ball in that it was used to light up the works of the "friendly" forces. For that reason it did not contain a shell inside.

LIGHT ROOM: A small room attached to the magazine on a naval vessel. Its purpose was to admit light into the magazine.

LIMBER: A two-wheeled carriage which was used to transport the cannon and its carriage. The iron ring (lunette) on the cannon trail was attached to an iron pintle at the rear of the limber to form a four-wheeled unit. The limber also carried an ammunition chest, tar bucket, leather or canvass water buckets, and a tarpaulin. Six horses were usually required to pull the limber and cannon.

LIMBER POLE-PAD: See Pole-Pad.

LINE OF METAL: See Natural Line of Sight.

LINCHPIN: Iron pin-and-ring set inserted into the wheel hub of the carriage to prevent the wheel from sliding off the axle.

LINSTOCK: A wooden rod, about 31-inches long, used to hold a slow match for igniting the powder in the vent. The staff was tipped at one end with an iron point so it could be inserted in the ground between firing.

LIP: See Molding.

LOADING TONG: Used for inserting the powder cartridge and projectile into mortars and other large weapons. Tongs were formed of two arms hinged together so that the bent ends of the short arms entered the ears of the projectile, while the widened and grooved ends of the long arms could carry the cartridge.

LOCK: Mechanism designed to ignite the powder charge in the cannon by the strike of a piece of metal, called a hammer, which was accomplished through the use of springs or a lanyard. The lock was made obsolete by the friction primer, except in the Navy. Fragments of primers laying about on the deck could be hazardous to the bare feet of the sailors manning the weapons.

LOCK PIECE: A block of metal cast on the tube just behind the vent opening. The lock was attached to this block.

LUNETTE: 1) Fortifications: an improvement on the standard redan by providing flanks. From these flanks artillery fire could sweep terrain which could not be defended well from the faces. 2) Artillery: the iron ring located on the trail of the cannon which was used to attach the cannon carriage to the limber.

MAGAZINE: A safe storage area for projectiles and gunpowder on land and ships. The magazine for semi-permanent field fortifications was constructed of timbers and covered with earth. It was usually located behind and to the flank of the artillery emplacement. In siege situations, two small magazines were constructed rather than one large one. In forts and fortresses, the magazine was located in a well-protected casemate or in specially constructed bomb-proof storage rooms out of the range of attacking batteries. For land batteries, smaller magazines, known as expense magazines, were located near the guns and were used to store small amounts of powder and projectiles for immediate use. In naval vessels, the magazine was usually located in the lowest hole amidship, below the waterline, where it was protected by heavy timbers. Air circulation was essential for all magazines to prevent contamination of the powder. All personnel entering the magazine were required to leave any metal equipment outside to prevent accidental sparks. In the navy, flooding hoses were laid out in each compartment in case of emergency.

MALLEABLE CAST IRON: Cast iron which had been melted and stirred constantly, while exposed to intense heat, until it lost its carbon. Because the iron became malleable, or able to be shaped easily, this metal was used to form sabots for certain projectile patterns. When the projectile was fired, the malleable cast iron sabot would expand into the grooves of the tube without breaking. An example of a malleable cast iron sabot is the Delafield projectile.

MANEUVERING HANDSPIKE: See Handspike.

MANTLET: A bullet-proof shield made of wood, rope matting, or metal used to protect cannon crews at the embrasures.

MARK OF RECEPTION: A stamp on the tube made by the appropriate agency accepting the tube. The letters "U.S." were used for the army; an anchor for the navy; and the letters "C.S." for the Confederate forces. British pieces were stamped with a broad arrow.

MARKING: Ordnance foundry and inspection symbols required to be stamped on artillery tubes. These markings usually consisted of the number of the gun, the initials of the inspector, the initials of the foundry, the year of fabrication, the weight of the piece in pounds, the foundry number, and the letters "U.S."

MARTEL’LO TOWERS: Circular structures of masonry usually found on seacoasts. These had a small gun on the summit which could sweep in all directions.

MASKED BATTERY: A battery so concealed or disguised so as not to be seen by the enemy until the last possible moment. Cavalry was often used to mask a battery because it could be moved out quickly.

MATRIX: A medium of sulphur, asphaltum-pitch, or tree rosin added to the interior of a case-shot projectile for the purpose of stabilizing the case-shot balls. The matrix helped prevent damage to the bursting charge can or cavity and prevented accidental discharge caused by movement of the cast-shot balls during the firing process.

MEALED POWDER: Powder which has been granulated to a fine size and grade. Mealed powder could be mixed easily with nitre and other ingredients.

MEN’S HARNESS: Also known as a Bricole. A rope, 4-inches thick and 18-feet long, with thimbles and a hook, much in the fashion of a drag rope. However, instead of handles, the harness had five pairs of leather loops approximately 3 -feet apart. This allowed ten men to be fastened to the rope in order to drag heavy ordnance or supplies short distances or up steep inclines when horses could not be used.

MERLON: The section of parapet between two embrasures in a fortification. The merlon was usually 15- to 18-feet long.

MORTAR: An artillery tube with a short chamber, designed to fire shells, fire balls, and carcasses at high elevations (45 degrees) using a small powder charge. Mortars were usually sized by bore diameter in inches except for the smaller 12-pounder and 24-pounder sizes. The chamber of a mortar (called a Gomer chamber, after its inventor) was specially designed to concentrate the charge in a small area so the projectile could receive as much of the explosion as possible. Mortar projectiles usually exploded while still high in the air and rained fragments down on fortifications and enemy soldiers

MORTAR BED: Carriage for a mortar, usually made of iron, wrought iron, or wood. Because the mortar fired a projectile at a high elevation, the recoil tended to force the piece downward instead of backwards. A short, squat mortar bed could withstand this downward shock whereas a wheeled carriage easily broke apart.

MORTAR WAGON: Wagon designed for the transportation of siege mortars and their beds, heavy guns, and large shot and shell. The limber and wheels are the same as those of the gun carriage. The mortar was usually carried mounted on its bed.

MOLD VENT: A small opening in a projectile mold which allowed gases to be released during the pouring process. This let the molten metal to completely fill the mold, causing the projectile to be stronger and smoother. Waste from the mold vent was chiseled from the projectile after it was removed from the mold.

MOLDING: The architectural rings and raised bands on a cannon tube which served as decorations. Moldings include Astragal (half-circle with fillet on each side), Lip (cavetto in form backed by a fillet), Echinus (quarter-round), Cavetto (concave with quarter circle curve), and Fillet (narrow and flat).

MOUNT: 1) To place a gun on its carriage. 2) Naval term indicating how many guns were carried on a ship (i.e." the ship mounts seventy-four guns").

MOUNTAIN ARTILLERY: Consisted of the 12-pounder mountain howitzer (US) and the 2.25-inch mountain rifle (CS). These weapons could be quickly disassembled for transportation on pack animals. It could be reassembled and ready for firing in one minute. No limber was included, so ammunition was carried in narrow boxes strapped to each side of a pack animal. A complete battery normally consisted of six howitzers, seven carriages, thirty-six ammunition chests, various battery tools, and thirty-three pack animals.

MUZZLE: The mouth, or opening, of the bore of a cannon tube and the face that surrounds it. The muzzle opening was chamfered, or beveled, to prevent abrasion and to facilitate loading.

MUZZLE-LOADER: A weapon which had the projectile and charge loaded through the mouth, or muzzle, of the bore. Most artillery pieces of the Civil War were muzzle-loaders.

MUZZLE BAND: Also known as a muzzle ring. In field and siege howitzers and mortars, a muzzle band took the place of the muzzle swell.

MUZZLE FACE: See Face Of The Piece.

MUZZLE RING: See Muzzle Band.

MUZZLE SIGHT: An iron leaf sight which was screwed into the muzzle swell of guns, or into the middle of the muzzle band of howitzers. The muzzle sight was used as a forward aiming point.

MUZZLE SWELL: The largest part of the gun in front of the neck, just behind the muzzle.

NAIL BALL: A round projectile with an iron pin projecting from it. This prevented the projectile from turning in the bore of the piece.

NATURAL ANGLE OF SIGHT: The angle which the natural line of sight made with the axis of the piece.

NATURAL LINE OF SIGHT: Also known as the line of metal. A line drawn from the highest point of the base ring to the highest point of the muzzle swell. When muzzle swells were not visible, a line of sight could be formed by affixing a front sight to the muzzle, such as with seacoast guns.

NAVAL ARTILLERY: Those pieces supplied to the naval forces and mounted on barges, boats, and ships and used for offensive attacks or defensive tactics.

NECK: The smallest part of the piece in front of the astragal or the chase ring. Also, the narrowest part of the cascabel.

NIPPLE: A short, round metal device, with a hole through the center, similar to the nipple or cone on Civil War small arms. The nipple was attached to the contact end of the percussion fuze and held the percussion cap in place. When the slider fell against the anvil, the percussion cap would explode, transfer a flame through the hole in the nipple, and ignite the powder train.

NOTCH: See Lathe Dog.

OGEE: An ornamental molding in the shape of an "S," sometimes used on guns, mortars, and howitzers.

OGIVE: The curve which determined the shape of the nose of a pointed or elongated projectile.

ORDNANCE AND ORDNANCE STORES: Generic terms which, for the artillery, encompassed all cannon, guns, howitzers, mortars, cannon balls, shot, and shells, for land service; all gun carriages, mortar beds, caissons, and traveling forges, with their equipments; all other apparatus and machines required for the service and maneuvers of artillery, in garrisons, sieges, or in the field; together with the materials for their construction, preservation, and repair.

ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT: The department of the Army charged with procuring ordnance and ordnance stores. Since this department often employed outside contractors and contract labor, it carried a number of trained army officers as Inspectors of Ordnance, whose primary function was to certify the quality of the ordnance purchased.

ORDNANCE SERGEANT: Sergeant whose duty was to receive and preserve the ordnance, arms, ammunition, and other military stores. Usually there was one Ordnance Sergeant per duty post. Each sergeant was appointed and had to have served at least eight years in service, with at least four years as a non-commissioned officer. Ordnance Sergeants received an extra five dollars pay each month.

PACKING BOX: See Ammunition Crate.

PAPER TIME FUZE: A tapered paper case filled with a gunpowder and resin composition. Paper fuzes were designed to burn for a specified number of seconds, as printed on the package or fuze itself. The fuze was also graduated in seconds on the outside paper so the gunner could cut the fuze for a shorter burning time if desired. Burning time could be set to explode the projectile above the ground or after impact. The paper fuze was driven into metal or wooden fuze holders, which had been previously inserted into the fuze hole of the projectile. The fuze was ignited by the flame from the explosion of the propellant charge of the weapon.

PARADOS: A traverse covering the interior of a work from reverse fire.

PARAPET: A wall surmounting the rampart in a fortification. The parapet was usually 7-feet high to protect the defenders and contained a banquette slope to allow troops to fire over it.

PARBUCKLE: A rope, 4-inches thick and 12-feet long, with a hook at one end and a loop at the other. A parbuckle was used to roll a gun up or down an incline.

PARK: See Artillery Park.

PASS BOX: Used to carry cartridge bags to the artillery weapons. Garrison and siege pass boxes were made of white pine with a hinged lid and wooden handle. The top was fastened by a brass hook and staple arrangement. In the field artillery, pass boxes were more cylinder shaped and covered with leather, and had a leather strap as a handle.

PATTERN: A classification of projectiles and ordnance based primarily on the date of patent or evidence of the first known field recoveries. Usually the designations of the different patterns of a projectile followed a chronological order of development. Minor variations in the body style, sabot, and fuzing system did not affect the designation.

PENDULUM-HAUSSE SIGHT: Also called the Hausse Sight. A free-swinging sighting piece attached to a seat on the barrel near the breech. The sight consisted of an upright piece of sheet brass with a movable slider. The slider traveled along a graduated scale. At the lower end of the sight was a lead-filled bulb which allowed the scale to remain in a vertical position regardless of the rough ground or the trunnions. This allowed the pendulum-hausse sight to be used when the breech sight and tangent scale were affected by a faulty position of the trunnions. Each pendulum-hausse sight was made to fit a specific weapon type.

PENETRATION: In test firing, the distance the tested projectile could travel through a substance which was similar to materials to be encountered in field situations. Material varied according to purpose and design of the projectile and included earth, wood, masonry, and wrought iron plates.

PERCUSSION CAP: A slightly conical copper cap, shaped like a top-hat, which contained fulminate of mercury. The rim of the cap had four slits cut into it in order to allow the cap to completely collapse. The cap was placed on the nipple of the fuze slider in the percussion fuze and, when struck upon impact, sent a spark to the charge.

PERCUSSION FUZE: A fuze designed to communicate fire to the bursting charge of the projectile at the moment of impact with the ground or other hard surface. Most percussion fuzes employed a plunger and anvil method of detonation.

PERCUSSION PRIMER OR TUBE: A small pipe which had a cup at one end and was filled with an explosive composition for firing cannon. In the navy, the percussion primer was composed of a quill tube, capped by a percussion wafer. The tube was filled with fine powder and the wafer was composed of cartridge paper enclosing a layer of fulminate of mercury mixed with a small quantity of mealed powder. This tube was used in place of the friction primer common to the army.

PERPENDICULAR: See Gunner’s Level.

PIECE: A generic term which is used to denote any artillery weapon.

PIERRIER: A small type of cannon or a mortar used to throw stones.

PILE: Artillery projectiles placed in a tiered arrangement to allow free circulation of air during storage. The projectiles were piled according to kind and caliber and the piles were marked with the number of serviceable rounds.

PINTLE: An iron pin, with a nut or key at the top, used to anchor the front of the barbette carriage to the pintle plate. The pintle served as a pivot for the gun.

PINTLE PLATE: A circular or square iron plate fastened to a stone block in a barbette emplacement. The pintle on the barbette carriage fit into the pintle plate.

PLATFORM: Made of wood and used to rest siege mortars and guns.

PLUMMET: A lead or iron weight suspended by a string. Used for leveling gun carriages and platforms. Also known as line-and-bob.

PLUNGER: Also called a striker or slider, the plunger was the inside moveable part of the percussion fuze. When the fuze struck a hard surface, the plunger was driven down a chamber and struck the percussion cap against an anvil. This caused a flame to be directed to the powder charge.

POINTING A PIECE: Term used to describe aiming a weapon by establishing such direction and elevation, or depression, that the projectile struck an object when fired. The art of pointing varied between different weapons and often included the use of pointing stakes, boards, cords, and wires to set up various angles and trajectories.

POLE-PAD: A padded leather cover which was placed on the end of the artillery carriage pole to prevent injury to the lead horses. The pole-pad was taken off the pole and stored when the carriage was not in use. Often referred to as a limber pole-pad.

POLYGONAL CAVITY: A type of interior cavity of a spherical common shell which was cast with lines of weakness to improve the fragmentation. The fragment patterns were cast as trapezoid shaped pieces, pentagonal dodecahedron (pentagon shaped pieces), and rhomboidal dodecahedron (diamond shaped pieces). This technique was attributed to C.S.A. Colonel John W. Mallet, Superintendent of Laboratories, Macon, Georgia. This type cavity was popular with the Confederate forces.

POMMELION: See cascabel.

PORTFIRE: A composition of nitre, sulphur, and mealed powder driven into a case of strong paper. Portfire was used to fire guns previous to the introduction of the friction primer. It was also used in emergency situations and to fire rockets. A full length portfire would burn for about ten minutes and could not be extinguished by water.

PORTFIRE CASE: A leather enclosed case designed to hold twelve portfires.

PORTFIRE CUTTER: A strong pair of scissors with an indention 1-inch wide and 0.4-inch deep in one blade for holding the portfire. This was used to cut the portfire to different lengths.

PORTFIRE STOCK: Brass socket fastened to a wood stock and used to hold the portfire.

POWDER: See Gunpowder.

POWDER BAG: See Cartridge Bag.

POWDER CARTRIDGE: See Cartridge Bag.

POWDER CHAMBER: See Chamber.

POWDER CHARGE: Gunpowder loaded in the chamber of a weapon to be used as a propellant for the projectile. The powder was usually contained in a cartridge bag.

POWDER CHEST: A naval term for a torpedo affixed to the side of a ship to assist in repelling boarders.

POWDER MEASURE: Cylindrical copper utensil with a flanged bottom. It was used to measure powder for projectiles and weapons.

POWDER MONKEY: A naval term for a boy who passed powder cartridges to the guns.

POWDER TRAIN: Powder-filled channel, usually a metal tube, in the interior of a case-shot projectile. This tube extended from the base of the fuze into the powder chamber. The purpose of the powder train was to transfer the flame from the fuze, through the case-shot balls, and into the bursting charge.

PRE-GUIDED FLIGHT: A projectile directed to a predetermined path of flight by means of studs or flanges manufactured onto the projectile. The projectile usually was the same shape as the bore but slightly smaller in diameter.

PREPONDERANCE OF PIECE: The difference in weight between the tube in front of the trunnions and the tube in the rear of the trunnions. It was measured by the amount of force necessary to be applied at the rear of the base ring to balance the piece when it was suspended freely on the axis of the trunnions. Preponderance had to be determined in order to avoid a sudden dipping of the muzzle and a violent concussion on the carriage at the breech during firing.

PRIME: To insert a priming tube in the vent of the cannon.

PRIMER: See Friction Primer.

PRIMING: A powder train laid in order to communicate with the charge to be fired.

PRIMING TUBE: See Percussion Primer or Tube.

PRIMING WIRE: Iron wire pointed at one end with a circular loop at the other. It was inserted through the vent in order to pierce the cartridge bag seated in the bore. This allowed the flame from the primer to reach the propellant charge.

PROJECTILE: 1) The shot or shell fired from artillery weapons. Projectiles were classified as spherical, (fired from smoothbore guns), or elongated, (fired from rifled guns). They were also classified by their construction. Solid shot were made of cast iron; shells had hollow interiors containing the bursting charge; and case-shot shells had hollow interiors filled with lead or iron case-shot contained in a matrix. Other classifications included bar-shot, canister, carcass, chain-shot, and stand of grape. 2) Bullet fired from small arms weapons.

PROLONGE: Hemp rope 12' long with a hook at one end and a toggle at the other. Two rings were attached equal distance in the middle of the rope. The hook and toggle were passed through the rings and hooked together to shorten the length as desired. The prolonge was used to quickly and temporarily attach the gun to the limber when changing positions or advancing and retreating.

PROPELLANT CHARGE: See Service Charge.

PROVENANCE: Term used in describing the source or place of origin of artillery projectiles, (i.e. Federal, Confederate, arsenal designation, etc).

PUNCH: See Fuze Cutter.

QUADRANT: See Gunner’s Quadrant.

QUADRANT SIGHT: Also known as Quarter Sight. These were divisions marked on the upper quarters of the base ring and were used for pointing a piece at a less elevation than the natural angle of sight. Quadrant sights were not used to any appreciable extent during the Civil War.

QUARTER SIGHT: See Quadrant Sight.

QUICK MATCH: Cotton wick soaked in gummed brandy or whiskey and coated with a paste of mealed powder and gummed spirits. A yard of quick match burned in the open air for thirteen seconds and much slower in an enclosed tube. Quick matches were used to fire mortars and priming fire and light balls, carcasses, rockets, priming tubes, etc.

QUILL PRIMING TUBE: See Spur Tube.

QUILTED GRAPE: Constructed similar to a stand of grape, but had a wooden or metal bottom plate with a covering of canvas. Twine or wire was wrapped around the canvas and tied at the top of the stand. Although most quilted grape stands were obsolete by the Civil War, some large caliber stands were still used by naval and seacoast batteries.

QUION: A wedge made of oak and used in place of an elevating screw for mortars and large howitzers.

RABBETTED: A sabot attachment system consisting of notches or cuts manufactured into the base of rifled projectiles. Its purpose was to keep the sabot from turning while the projectile was being fired.

RAKE: A naval term indicating gunfire along the line of an object (i.e. to "rake a ship" meant to sweep with shot at the length of the ship).

RATCHET WHEEL: A wheel with pointed and angular teeth which rests against the ratchets of the weapon and is used to elevate or depress the piece.

RATCHETS: A series of indention’s cut into the breech of large weapons. Ratchets were used to set elevation.

RAMMER: A wooden cylinder made of elm, poplar, maple, or similar wood. The rammer was attached to a wooden staff, usually the opposite end of the sponge. The center of the rammer was slightly concave to avoid contact with the fuze. It was used to drive the powder cartridge and projectile to the base of the bore in preparation for firing.

RAMPART: A broad embankment of earth which surrounded a fortified place. In forts or fortresses, the rampart was considered to be the entire top of the fortification, and held the epaulement to protect the artillery crew. In many fortifications, a dirt ramp was constructed to the top of the rampart to provide access for weapons and troops.

RAMPART GRENADE: See Grenade.

RANGE: Term used to measure distance from the muzzle of the gun to the first graze (impact) made on horizontal ground, with the weapon mounted on its appropriate carriage. The range of a spherical case-shot was determined by the distance at which the shell burst near the ground in the time given, thus providing the elevation and the length of fuze required for certain distances.

REBATED: Term used to describe a projectile with a groove cut or cast into it.

RECOIL: The backward movement of a cannon immediately after being discharged. It was necessary to reposition the weapon after each recoil.

REDAN: A small field fortification with two walls set at a salient angle facing the enemy. The rear, or gorge, was usually open. A redan was used to cover a camp, the front of a battlefield, advanced posts, roads into or out of towns, bridges, etc.

REDOUBT: A small field fortification enclosed on all sides. A redoubt might be in the shape of a square, polygon, or pentagon.

RE-ENTERING ANGLE: An angle which pointed inward, towards the work.

REINFORCE: The thickest part of the body of a gun, in front of the breech. If there was more than one reinforce, the one next to the breech was called the first reinforce and the other was the second reinforce.

REINFORCE BAND: See Reinforce Ring.

REINFORCE RING: A narrow metal ring around the junction of the first and second reinforce on a gun tube. This was also know as a reinforce band (not to be confused with a reinforcing band).

REINFORCE SIGHT: A sight placed on the second reinforce of a gun tube. Large weapons and some navy guns had the front sight set there.

REINFORCING BAND: A heavy metal ring or band which was fixed over the breech area of rifled artillery to provide extra strength.

REGISTRY NUMBER: A government serial number placed on each artillery weapon at the foundry.

REMAINING VELOCITY: The speed of a projectile measured by the space in feet passed over in a second at any point of its trajectory after the initial velocity.

REVETMENT: Construction designed to protect the interior slopes of the parapets from erosion or other damage which could cause failure of the wall. Materials used consisted of fascines, gabions, sod, sand bags, or timber bound tightly against the slope.

RICOCHET: Firing a solid shot at such a low angle of elevation which caused the shot to graze (strike) a hard surface, bounce up, and travel close to the surface. Ricochet fire was used to destroy gun carriages, inflict greater damage on enemy troops, and, in the navy, to increase the chances of striking an enemy ship at the water line.

RIFLE: Term referring to a cannon tube cut with spiral lands and grooves, known as rifling.

RIFLED ORDNANCE: Projectiles constructed to conform to the land and groove bores of rifled guns.

RIFLING: Also referred to as lands and grooves, rifling was the technique of cutting spiral grooves into the bore of the barrel of artillery and firearms weapons. This allowed the expanding sabot of a fired projectile to engage the grooves and rotate. This caused greater accuracy and stability of the projectile. Those portions of the original smoothbore that remained after the grooves were cut were known as lands and were used as the nominal measurement for the actual diameter of the bore. The twist of the rifling was either uniform for the entire length of the bore, or it progressively increased from the breech to the muzzle.

RIMBASE: The short cylinder, or shoulder, which united the trunnion with the body of the weapon. Its purpose was to provide extra strength at the trunnion junction and to limit any sideways movement in the trunnion beds.

RIMBASE SIGHT: Small leaf-type sight which was screwed into the rimbase.

RING GAUGE: An iron ring with a wooden handle, used to determine the diameter of a spherical projectile. The gauge came in two sizes; the largest 0.02- or 0.03-inches greater than the true diameter of the projectile; the smallest 0.02- or 0.03-inches or less than the true diameter. To be a true diameter, the projectile should not pass through the small gauge at all but had to pass in any direction through the large gauge.

ROCK FIRE: An incendiary material used to set fire to ships and buildings. It was much like Greek Fire in that it burned very slowly and was difficult to extinguish. The composition was made with rosin, sulphur, nitre, regulus of antimony, and turpentine. It was contained in paper cylinders containing a primer and was placed inside shells to be fired at the target. It was known to the Confederates as Fire Stone.

ROCKET: A projectile set in motion by a force within itself. Most rockets were composed of a strong case of paper or wrought iron containing a composition of nitre, charcoal, and sulphur. This composition was designed to burn slower than gunpowder. The rocket head was either a solid shot, shell, or spherical case-shot and the base was perforated by one or more vents. The majority of Civil War rockets were patterned after William Hale’s design. The Hale rocket had three vents in the base for stability and rotation and no guide stick. The Confederates also used a pattern designed by Colonel William Congreve. The Congreve rocket used a directing stick which was inserted directly through the case. The size of rockets were indicated by the diameter of the cases in inches or by weight.

ROLLER CHOCK: See Chock.

ROLLER HANDSPIKE: See Handspike.

SABOT: The sabot served as the driving band for the projectile, and was made of wood, brass, copper, lead, papier-mache, leather, rope, or wrought iron. The sabot for a rifled projectile was attached directly onto the projectile. When the weapon was fired, the gases from the propellant charge caused the sabot to expand into the rifling grooves. This, in turn, caused a rotation motion of the projectile which extended its range and improved stability. In the case of a smoothbore projectile a wooden sabot, made of poplar, basswood, linden, or other close grained wood, was used to hold the projectile with its fuze forward and in the center of the bore. Solid shot had the sabot attached with two crossed tin straps. If the wooden sabot was tied to a cartridge bag, the entire round was then referred to as fixed ammunition.

SADDLE: Two types of saddles existed for artillery use: the driver’s and the pack. The driver’s saddle was made much like the standard pattern of cavalry saddles. This saddle was used by the mounted artillery crew members who drove the horse team pulling the cannon, limber, and caissons. In the standard six-horse team, a driver was assigned to the lead pair, swing pair, and wheel pair of horses. The pack saddle was used for securing the barrel of the mountain howitzer for transportation by horse or mule. It had special hitches and rings to secure the load.

SALIENT: Part of a fortification defensive line called cremaillere or indented line. The salient was an angle, or sharp point, which faced out towards the enemy and was constructed in the simplest of entrenchments. The salient was often the target of artillery bombardments.

SALTPETRE: Also known as nitrate of potash. It comprised approximately 75% of the gunpowder formula.

SALVO: A simultaneous discharge of artillery against a target.

SCALE: To clean the inside of a cannon by the explosion of a small quantity of powder.

SCRAPER: Iron implement, 27-inches long, with a spoon on one end and a spade-shaped scraper on the other. It was used to remove the residue of powder from the bore of mortars and large howitzers.

SEACOAST ARTILLERY: Heavy weapons which were usually permanently mounted in position in forts or other defensive areas along river banks and coastal waterways. Seacoast weapons were mounted on barbette, casemate, flank casemate, and Columbiad carriages, or, as in the case of mortars, beds. Some examples of seacoast artillery were the 10-inch Columbiad and 15-inch caliber Rodman smoothbore cannon.

SEGMENTED SHELL: A rifled projectile which contained small pieces of iron (segments) bonded together and arranged around the bursting charge. When the projectile exploded the segments would be dispersed over a large area. An example of a segmented projectile is the Britten.

SERVICE CHARGE: Also known as a Propellant Charge. This charge was the amount of gunpowder needed to fire a specified projectile the desired distance. Service charge was stated in pounds and was obtained from standardized range tables. The size of the gun dictated the amount of the service charge, not the projectile or range.

SHELL: Also known as a common shell. A hollow projectile of cast iron containing a bursting charge, which was ignited by means of a fuze. A shell fired at troops was set to go off in the air above the target or, if ricochet was desired, to plunge into the column before detonation. When fired at works or buildings, the fuze was set to explode after penetration.

SHELL HOOK: Also known as Shell Tong. Shell hooks were similar to loading tongs in that they had two bent iron arms connected with a pivot. An iron ring was attached through two smaller rings to the rear of the hooks. Shell hooks were used to move mortar or other heavy shells which could not be easily handled. The artillerist placed the open ends of the hooks into the ears of the shell, put a handspike through the large ring, and lifted, thereby engaging the hooks.

SHELL PLUG SCREW: A large tapered iron screw with a 2 inch ring attached. The plug screw was used to remove wooden or cork plugs from the fuze hole of a shell prior to inserting the fuze holder.

SHELL TONG: See Shell Hook.

SHRINK HEAD: See Gun Head.

SHOD HANDSPIKE: See Handspike.

SHORT SWORD: See Foot Artillery Sword.

SHOT: See Solid Shot.

SIDE-LOADER: A projectile which had a hole in the side of the body in order to facilitate the loading of case-shot material and matrix. This hole was usually sealed with a lead, iron, brass, or copper threaded plug. Side-loaded case-shot was commonly found in a variety of Confederate patterns of both rifled and spherical projectiles.

SIEGE: To completely surround a fortified city or other defensive works in order to force the surrender of the defenders. Artillery fire was important in a siege to soften the target and harass the inhabitants of the besieged position. A successful siege prohibited the movement of supplies into the area and cut off communications to any allies. Vicksburg, Atlanta, and Richmond are examples of cities under siege during the Civil War.

SIEGE AND GARRISON ARTILLERY: Large and cumbersome weapons which could be moved, with difficulty, from one position to another. This type artillery was designated "siege" if it was used to attack a fortification and "garrison" if it was used to defend the fortification. The common weapons used for siege and garrison batteries were 12-, 18-, and 24-pounder guns; 8-inch howitzers; 8- and 10-inch and Coehorn mortars.

SIEGE TRAIN: See Artillery Train.

SIGHTS: Equipment and implements used to align a weapon for accuracy before firing.

SIGHTS OF THE PIECE: Artificial marks on the piece for determining the line of fire. Sights were usually determined by the use of the gunner’s level when the trunnions were perfectly horizontal.

SIGNAL ROCKETS: Used by the Signal Corps to convey messages or directions across distances. Signal rockets were composed of a paper or pasteboard cylinder filled with a charge and a light stick to give direction. Also included was a pot containing various ornaments; stars, serpents, streamers, gold rain, or marrons (used to give a loud report for the effect of cannonading).

SLIDER: See Plunger.

SLING CART: A two-wheeled carriage made of wood used to transport cannons and their carriages. The axle-tree was arched to make it stronger. The rear of the axle had a projection welded on to receive the end of a hook. An eye was attached to the front end of the pole for attaching the cart to a limber or horse. A hand sling cart was smaller and made entirely of iron, except for the pole. It was used for transporting artillery in the siege trenches.

SLOW MATCH: Prepared from hemp or flax soaked in a strong lye. Cotton rope formed a good match without any preparation. A slow match could retain a small flame or coal and burn at the rate of 4- to 5-inches per hour. Before the advent of friction primers, the slow match was used to light the portfire which, in turn, ignited the cannon fuze.

SMOKE BALL: A hollow paper sphere similar to a light ball, which contained a composition which emitted a dense and nauseous smoke. A smoke ball burned for 25-30 minutes and was used to suffocate enemy miners trying to undermine fortifications, or to conceal the operations of troops.

SMOOTHBORE: A musket or artillery barrel which was manufactured without rifling, or lands and grooves, in the bore.

SOLID SHOT: A solid iron projectile cast without a powder chamber or fuze hole. A solid spherical projectile was known as "shot" or "cannon ball" and was used against troops, fortifications, opposing batteries, etc. Spherical shot was also used for ricochet firing. The elongated rifled projectile was called a bolt and was fired primarily at fortifications.

SPENT BALL: A ball which reached its object without the necessary force to penetrate it.

SPHERICAL CASE: See Case-shot.

SPHERICAL PROJECTILES: Round solid shots or shells usually fired from a smoothbore gun.

SPIKE: To intentionally render an artillery piece unserviceable to avoid its capture and use by the enemy. Various means were used to accomplish this. A nail or small rod could be driven through the vent hole; a shot could be wedged in the bottom of the bore with the use of iron wedges driven in with the rammer; shells could be caused to burst in the bore, or broken shot fired from the tube with a high charge; two weapons could be fired at each other, muzzle to muzzle; the trunnions could be broken off, or bursted by firing heavy charges full of shot at great elevations.

SPLINTERS: A naval term for pieces of wood torn off by a shot which could endanger the crew in action.

SPLIT TRAIL: A gun carriage in which each cheek piece extended for the full length. This style was considered obsolete before the Civil War, but records indicate a Confederate howitzer carriage existed with a split trail which allowed the weapon to be used as a mortar in high-angle fire. This was an experimental arrangement which saw little use.

SPONGE: Made of coarse, well-twisted woolen yarn and fashioned into a bag, the sponge was attached to a sponge head which was, in turn, fastened to a wooden staff. In field artillery, the sponge was usually attached to the opposite end of the rammer staff. For some mortars and Columbiads, the sponge was attached directly to a staff without a sponge head. The sponge was used to carry water to the bottom of the bore to extinguish any burning embers and to help clean the weapon of powder residue. The artillerist responsible for sponging the cannon would insert the sponge and twist it three times clockwise and three times counter-clockwise.

SPONGE AND RAMMER: A wooden staff with the sponge affixed to one end and the rammer to the opposite end. This combination tool was used with most artillery pieces.

SPONGE BUCKET: Made of sheet iron, this bucket measured 9-inches high and 7.8-inches in diameter. A wooden cover was attached to the opening and was connected to the handle by two rings and a chain. A toggle bolt was fastened to the handle by two links and a swivel. This allowed the bucket to be attached to the eye of the axle strap on the carriage. The sponge bucket held water for dipping the sponge-head into when washing out the cannon tube. Not to be confused with the wooden water bucket.

SPONGE COVER: Made of Russia duck material (canvas). The cover was used to protect and preserve the sponge and was secured by means of a cord passing through the hem of the material. The cover was marked in black with the caliber of the gun to which it belonged. Carpet was used when this material was not available.

SPONGE HEAD: A wooden cylinder made of elm or poplar. The head was attached to a wooden staff, usually the opposite end of a rammer, and was fitted with the sponge.

SPRUE: An overflow of metal poured through the gate in a mold to cast a projectile. The sprue was later chiseled or cut off while finishing the projectile.

SPUR TUBE: A quill filled with mealed powder and having a quill spur, also filled with powder. It was used in the Navy in place of the friction primer, which was considered dangerous on board ships because the metal fragments could injure barefooted gunners. The powder in the tube was bored out in the middle and a match was used to ignite it.

STAND OF GRAPE: A projectile consisting of a cast iron bottom and top plate with a specific number (usually nine) of cast iron shot arranged in three tiers between them. The unit was held together by an axle bolt through the two plates and two iron rings around the shot. A hemp rope was attached to the top plate for ease in transportation and loading. When the projectile was fired it broke apart and spread with a shotgun effect. Grapeshot was used at relatively close range against advancing enemy but, by the time of the Civil War, it had been almost wholly replaced by canister.

STEEL: A metal composed of iron alloyed with various small percentages of carbon. Steel was categorized as hard, medium, or soft according to the carbon content, and it could be alloyed with other metals to produce variation in hardness, strength, elasticity, and malleability. Steel was a finer grain than cast iron. Civil War artillery projectiles were usually made out of cast iron and not of steel.

STOCK TRAIL: Carriage in which the short cheeks supporting the cannon were attached to each side of a single central stock. The wooden field carriage was typical of this arrangement.

STONE MORTAR: Used to throw stones a short distance, approximately 150 to 250 yards, or 6-pounder shells from 50 to 150 yards. The stones were put into a basket fitted to the bore, and placed on a wooden bottom which covered the mouth of the chamber. Stone mortars became obsolete early in the Civil War and were superseded by large caliber mortar projectiles.

STRIKER: See Plunger. Also known as a slider. The cylindrical device that impacted against the anvil cap inside a percussion fuze.

SUB-PATTERN: Term used in classification of artillery projectiles. Pattern is the first classification field used. Within the pattern, however, there may exist significant variations in the projectile body, sabot, or fuzing. When any of these variations exist, or a combination of differences, the projectile is further classified as a sub-pattern.

SULPHUR: Mineral which comprised about 10% of the mixture of gunpowder. Sulphur added consistency to the mixture and intensity to the flame. It also render the powder less liable to absorb moisture.

SWIVEL: A small artillery piece mounted on a pivot.

TAMPION: See Tompion.

TANGENT SCALE OR SIGHT: A rear sight made of sheet brass cut into a series of steps with degrees marked on each step. Each degree represented a known range for that weapon. A flange was located on the curved base so that the sight could rest on top of the base ring. The tangent scale was used in conjunction with the front sight and the system required absolutely level trunnions. The tangent sight saw little service during the Civil War and was replaced, to a great extent, by the pendulum hausse or breech sight.

TAR: Also referred to as grease, tar was used as a lubricant for the carriage axles and projectile shots. Hogs’ lard or tallow was usually used, with actual tar mixed in to keep the grease from melting during long marches and hot weather.

TAR BUCKET: Also referred to as a grease bucket. The tar bucket was made of sheet iron, 7.2- inches in diameter and 8-inches in height. It had a metal cover which was secured to the bucket by a metal stud riveted to the top. The handle was a chain attached to two hooks on the bucket. The tar bucket held the tar.

TERMINAL VELOCITY: The velocity at which a projectile struck the target.

TERREPLEIN: A term used in fortification engineering for any space which was level. Artillery was usually mounted in the terreplein.

THUMB STALL: Made of buckskin with horse hair stuffed under the thumb pad. A buckskin string secured the thumb stall to the wrist of the gunner. It was also manufactured in white buff leather. The gunner used the thumb stall to protect against heat when he stopped the vent (placed his thumb over the vent) during the sponging procedure.

TIME FUZE: A fuze designed to explode a projectile, at pre-set designated number of seconds after being fired from an artillery piece. The time fuze was often used with a case-shot projectile when an air burst was desired. The most common time fuzes were the Bormann (metal) and the paper fuze.

TOMPION: Also spelled tampion. A iron or brass stopper which fit in the muzzle of artillery pieces and small arms to protect the bore from weather or foreign materials. On larger guns the tompions have been made from wood. Many tompions also had cork attached for a more secure fit.

TONG HOLES: See Ears.

TOUCH HOLE: See vent.

TOW HOOK: A tool made of round iron with a hammer on one end and a hook on the other. It was used for unpacking ammunition boxes and for tightening and repairing the sabot straps on fixed-ammunition projectiles.

TOW-WAD: Rope fibers which were placed in the fuze plug opening of the projectile prior to shipping. Its purpose was to keep debris from entering the inner cavity of the shell and it was removed in the field prior to the insertion of the fuze. Tow-wad was also used as a shock absorber to prevent shells from moving around in the limber chest.

TRAIL: The part of the stock of the gun carriage behind the cheeks, which rests on the ground when the gun is unlimbered.

TRAIL HANDSPIKE: See Handspike.

TRAIN: 1) To point or aim a gun at an object; 2) a line of gunpowder to fire a charge; 3) a line of artillery carriages and weapons on the march.

TRAJECTORY: The curve made by a projectile moving through space, from the time the projectile leaves the muzzle to the point of impact. Trajectory was affected by the elevation of the tube, the weight of the projectile, and the amount of gunpowder used.

TRANSOM: The pieces of wood or iron connecting the cheeks in a siege gun carriage.

TRAVERSE: Portions of parapets, which crossed the breadth of the covered way, at the salient and re-entering places of arms.

TRUCK: A low stout carriage for moving guns.

TRUCK HANDSPIKE: See Handspike.

TRUNNIONS: The two short cylinders which projected from the sides of a gun barrel. These rested on the cheeks of the carriage and supported the barrel.

TRUNNION BAND: A band around the cannon barrel which was used to support the trunnions.

TUBE: The correct nomenclature for a cannon barrel. Tubes were made of either cast-iron, wrought-iron, steel, or bronze.

TUBE POUCH: A leather pouch which held the friction primers, lanyard, thumb-stall, the priming wire, and gunner’s gimlet. The sides and ends were made of russet sole-leather. It had two covers, the inner one having end pieces sewed to it which were shut over the ends of the pouch. The outer one, or flap, was of the same piece as the back, and was fastened down by a strap to a brass button riveted to the bottom of the pouch. Two small loops sewed to the inside of the flap served for carrying the priming wire and gimlet. It was similar in appearance to the cartridge box.

TWIST: Refers to the rotation imparted to a projectile by passing through a rifled bore. This allowed the shell to have greater range and better trajectory.

UNDERPLUG: An iron, brass, or copper circular threaded plug with a hole in the center. These plugs were screwed into the receiver hole of the projectile (usually a Bormann shell) before the Bormann fuze was seated. Its purpose was to support the soft metal fuze from being deformed during firing. Found in spherical and rifled projectiles with the Bormann time fuze.

UNLIMBER: To detach the trail of a gun from the limber.

UNSPIKE: The removal of the material used to spike the vent hole or bore of the tube. Various techniques were used depending on the type of spike and the metal of the tube.

VALISE: A leather case, usually 18-inches long and 8-inches wide, which was strapped on the saddle behind the gunner. It contained personal property of the gunner.

VARIANT: The minor differences found within a projectile pattern or sub-pattern, such as a wooden drive-in paper time fuze adapter as opposed to a threaded paper time fuze adapter. These differences are not enough to reclassify the projectile, so the specimen is said to be a "variant" of that pattern.

VELOCITY: The motion versus distance ratio of a projectile after being fired by a weapon. Gunners in the Civil War had to estimate velocity by using a measurement of distances by sound. In order to get a valid measurement they had to take into account the wind, temperature, and humidity present during firing.

VENT: A small hole bored through the breech end of the cannon tube. The .2-inch diameter opening received the friction primer which, when seated, transferred a spark to the powder charge. The internal diameter had to be very small because too much gas would otherwise escape through it and cause a misfire or lower velocity fire.

VENT COVER: To protect the vent, a leather strap with a brass or copper pin attached was fastened across the breech of the tube. The pin entered the vent hole to keep the strap from slipping. This replaced the vent apron.

VENT PUNCH: A tool for clearing the vent of any obstructions. It had an octagon head, with a hole in the center, and with a wire brazed to it. The wire had a flat end and was the same diameter as the priming wire.

WAD: Rope yarn twisted around the straps of the projectile sabot or the projectile itself. This rope, commonly referred to as "ring wads" in the army and "grommets" in the navy, increased the accuracy of fire and were preferred when keeping the ball in place. Wadding could also be made of straw or hay and wrapped with rope yarn. The "hay wadding" was commonly used in hot shot firing.

WATER BUCKET: Wooden or leather buckets used to carry clean water for the cannon crew. Wooden buckets usually were used in garrison duty since the rigors of the field caused them to be easily damaged. Not to be confused with the sponge bucket.

WATER CAP: Specially constructed water-proof caps which were affixed to fuzes used in the navy or seacoast batteries. These caps prevented water from extinguishing the flame when the shell was fired in a ricochet angle into a body of water.

WEIGHT RATIO: This was a crude method of determining the size and strength of a cannon. The weight of a solid shot which fit the bore, was divided into the known weight of the cannon.

WHEEL PAIR: Six horses were usually required to pull a field artillery piece. The two horses closest to the gun were referred to as the wheel pair.

WINDAGE: The space, or difference, between the bore diameter and the diameter of the projectile. Windage was measured by this difference. It was necessary to figure windage in order to make allowance for a piece becoming foul, the expansion of a shot by heat, the incrustation of rust, and the tin straps of fixed ammunition. Reducing windage increased the accuracy of fire and gave a more extensive range of fire.

WOODEN FUZE PLUG: A tapered wooden plug with a hole through the center. The plug was driven into the fuze hole of the projectile and then received the paper time fuze.

WORM: An iron implement shaped in a circular form having two branches twisted in a screw type fashion. It was used to clean the debris from the bore of the gun by twisting it after it was inserted. The worm was attached to a long wooden pole and it was the only implement on the pole.

WRENCH, FUZE: See fuze implements.

WROUGHT-IRON: A very tough, malleable iron made by striking the molten iron repeatedly with heavy automatic (usually steam-driven) hammers while it was cooling. The resulting product had great resistance to torque and could be shaped by re-heating and hammering to a desired form.

YAW: The wobbling motion of a projectile. Immediately upon exiting the muzzle of the tube, a projectile usually would begin to wobble. If the projectile was properly manufactured, and had caught the rifling of the bore, it would rapidly overcome the yaw and spin true on its axis. If the projectile was unable to overcome yaw, it would tumble in flight, thus decreasing its accuracy and range.