Federal and Confederate Manufacturers
Inspectors and Manufacturers
Following are lists of Army and Navy inspectors. Dates designate known (or assumed, "a") periods of ordnance duty. However, officers familiar with inspection procedures no doubt were placed on short tours of inspection service considered too insignificant to be mentioned in biographies and registers from which the lists were compiled (* indicates probable additional years).
Arsenal: Lawrenceville, PA. Munitions for the War of 1812,
the Mexican War
Cyrus Alger: founder of Cyrus Alger & Col. (q.v.).
Cyrus Alger & Co.: Cyrus Alger, who during the War of 1812 furnished the government with shot and shell, in 1817 started South Boston Iron company which at an early date was known locally as Alger's Foundry and later became Cyrus Alger & Co. The Massachusetts firm was a leading cannon manufacturer and when Cyrus died in 1856, leadership was assumed by his son, Francis, who piloted the company until his death in 1864. During the war, both Army and Navy were supplied with large numbers of weapons. The initials "S.B.F." (South Boston Foundry) occasionally may be found on cannon, but the signature is traditionally "C.A. & Co., Boston, Mass." or, rarely, "C. Alger & Co., Boston, Mass."
Francis Alger: President, Cyrus Alger & Co. (q.v.) 1856-64.
A. M. Co.: Ames Manufacturing Co. (q.v.).
Ames Co. Founders: Ames Manufacturing Co. (q.v.).
Horatio Ames: Inventor and owner of a foundry at either Salisbury or Falls Village, CT. for production of his own weapons.
James Tyler Ames: (1810-1883), headed Ames Manufacturing Co. 1847-74.
Ames Mfg. Co.: Ames Manufacturing Co. (q.v.).
Ames Manufacturing Co.: Cannon foundry at Chicopee (Springfield) Mass. operated by Nathan Peabody Ames and his brother James Tyler Ames. Between 1836, when the firm which had been organized in 1834 began casting cannon, and Nathan's death in 1847, weapons were marked "N.P. Ames, Founder, Springfield, Mass." After this date, when the younger brother became president, marks were "Ames Co., Founders, Chicopee, Mass.", "Ames Mfg. Co., Chicopee, Mass.", or "A.M.Co." with exception of certain weapons, products of this company were bronze.
Nathan Peabody Ames: (1803-1847). President of Ames Manufacturing Co. (q.v.) 1834-47.
J. R. Anderson & Co.: See Tredegar Foundry.
A. P. W.: One of many trademarks of Fort Pitt Foundry (q.v.). Possibly initials of a foundry co-owner names Wade.
Dr. Junius L. Archer: Owner of Bellona Foundry (q.v.) in Virginia.
B. A.: Bellona Arsenal (q.v.).
Bellona Arsenal: Military post garrisoned by a battery of U.S. artillery; said to have been established 1816-17. It was 14 miles above Richmond, adjacent to Bellona Foundry (q.v.) and served as a facility for repair and fabrication of small arms and other munitions. It presumably also received and stored cannon produced for the government at the nearby foundry. May also have been called Bellona Foundry Arsenal (B.F.A.).
B. F.: Bellona Foundry (q.v.). Builder's foundry (q.v.).
Bellona Foundry: Cannon foundry near Richmond operated in 1819, and probably earlier, by Maj. John Clark who still owned the firm in 1836. Clark sold it later (probably in the early 1840s) to Dr. Junius L. Archer. Under both owners the company was a major supplier of weapons for the U.S. and state governments. Initials "B.F." will be found coupled with those of Clark, but in early weapons written "I.C." rather than "J.C." in the same manner as those of Gen. John Mason of Columbia Foundry (q.v.). Whether Clark shifted to "J," as did Mason, in the 1830s has not been determined. Weapons will be found marked "I.C. & Co. B.F." and "I.C.B.F." at least until 1830 and thereafter probably with "J" substituted for "I." After purchase by Archer, cannon were marked "J.L.A. B.F."
B.F.A.: Bellona Foundry Arsenal (assumed). See Bellona Arsenal.
Builder's Foundry: Technically Builder's Iron foundry, but apparently known generally by the shorter name. Providence, R.I., firm operated by Zechariah Chafee which cast ammunition and heavy iron cannon during the war.
C.A. & Co.: Cyrus Alger & Co. (q.v.).
Zechariah Chafee: Operator of Builder's Foundry (q.v.).
John Clarke: Owner of Bellona Foundry (q.v.).
Col. Found.: Abbreviation of Columbia Foundry (q.v.) found on an eprouvette cast in 1816.
Columbia Foundry: Established in 1801 at Georgetown (D.C.) by Henry Foxall. He sold the firm in 1815 to Gen. John Mason who manufactured iron cannon for the government until 1841. Initials "C.F." are generally coupled with Mason's in one of two forms, "I.M." or "J.M." "I" was the early method of making a "J" and has been found with "C.F." on weapons dated 1821 and 1828 and with "Col. Found." in 1816. "C.F. J.M." is stamped on guns of 1836 and since Webster's Dictionary began separating the two letters in 1828, Mr. Mason seems to have followed suit between this date and 1836.
Eagle Iron Works: Cincinnati, Ohio, firm headed by M. Greenwood (q.v.)
F.P.: Fort Pitt. See Fort Pitt Foundry.
F.P.F.: Fort Pitt Foundry (q.v.).
Fort Pitt Foundry: Pittsburg, PA., manufacturer of iron cannon, particularly during the war when as the holder of Rodman's patents, this firm turned out large numbers of weapons by this process. It was founded in 1814 by Joseph McClurg and seems to have had a number of owners and co-owners over the years including Joseph and Alexander McClurg, Charles Knap, and men of the last names Totten, Rudd, and Wade. This resulted in a hodgepodge of names and initials including the following: F.P. - Fort Pitt. / McC., Pitt - McClurg, Pittsburg. / F.P.F., KR & Co. - Fort Pitt Foundry, Knap, Rudd & Co. / McC. & W., or McC.W. & Co. - McClurg and Wade. / McP & W, P.P.F. - Unidentified. The "W" probably is Wade. / A.P.W. - Unidentified. Possibly Wade's initials. / Fort Pitt, PA. / K.& T., or K.T.& Co. - Assumed initials of Knap and Totten. / K.& W., or K.W.& Co. - Assumed initials of Knap and Wade. / Knap & Co. - Assumed.
Henry Foxall: Columbia Foundry (q.v.) owner 1801-15.
M. Greenwood or M.G. Cin.O.: Miles Greenwood (1807-85) owner of the Eagle Iron Works at Cincinnati, Ohio, which produced a number of bronze field weapons 1861-62.
Hinckley: Hinckley, Williams & Co. (q.v.).
HNH & Co.: Henry N. Hooper & Co. (q.v.).
Henry N. Hooper & Co.: foundry at Boston, Mass., which during the war produced limited numbers of bronze and iron weapons as well as a 3-inch experimental rifle said to be made of German silver.
I.C. B.F. or I.C. & Co. B.F.: John Clark, Bellona Foundry (q.v.).
I.M.: John Mason of Columbia foundry (q.v.).
J.C. B.F. or J.C. & Co. B.F.: Assumed initials of John Clark, Bellona Foundry (q.v.) after substitution of "J" for "I."
J.L.A.: Junius L. Archer, owner of Bellona foundry (q.v.).
J.M.: John Mason, owner of Columbia Foundry (q.v.).
J.R.A. or J.R.A. & Co.: Joseph Reid Anderson or his firm. Initials are generally coupled with "T.F.," Tredegar Foundry (q.v.).
Charles Knap: Owner, Fort Pitt Foundry (q.v.).
KR & Co.: Knap, Rudd & Co. See Fort Pitt Foundry.
Knap & Totten: See Fort Pitt Foundry.
McC. Pitt.: McClurg, Pittsburg. See Fort Pitt Foundry.
Alexander McClurg: Owner, Fort Pitt Foundry (q.v.).
Joseph McClurg: Owner, Fort Pitt Foundry (q.v.).
McC. & W.: McClurg and Wade. Fort Pitt Foundry (q.v.).
McManus: See Scott Foundry.
McP & W., P.P.F.: See Fort Pitt Foundry.
Marshall & Co., St. Louis, Mo.: A few bronze cannon have been found with the name of this firm stamped on the trunnions.
John Mason: Proprietor of Columbia Foundry (q.v.).
Nimick: See Singer-Nimick & Co.
N.W.: Norman Wiard (q.v.).
N.Y.C., O.F.: Unidentified. Presumably a New York City foundry which made weapons designed by Norman Wiard (q.v.). Possibly John O'Donnell.
O.F.: Unidentified founder, possibly John O'Donnell. See Norman Wiard.
Robert Parker Parrott: (1804-1877). Superintendent of West Point Foundry 1836-67. Inventor of the Parrott Rifle. See West Point Foundry. Also, Inspectors, Army.
Phoenix Iron Company: Phoenixville, PA., firm which began manufacturing wrought iron cannon in 1855 and during the war produced the 3-inch Ordnance Rifle.
P.I.Co.: Phoenix Iron Co. (q.v.)
Portland Co.: Portland, Maine, firm operated by J. Sparrow. It is listed as manufacturing heavy weapons during the war - apparently in relatively limited numbers.
Revere Copper Co.: Manufacturer of bronze weapons, especially Napoleons.
S.B.F.: South Boston Foundry. See Cyrus Alger & Co.
Scott Foundry: Reading, PA., foundry apparently organized after the war began by Seyfert, McManus & Co. of Reading which had been in operation since 1836. Scott Foundry cast heavy iron weapons such as the 15-inch Rodman under an arrangement with Fort Pitt Foundry for use of the patented interior cooling process. Weapons are marked "S.F." which often is easily confused with initials of the inspector.
Seyfert, McManus & Co.: See Scott Foundry.
S.F.: Scott Foundry (q.v.).
Singer-Nimick & Co.: Pittsburg, PA., firm which in 1862 manufactured a small number of cast steel 3-inch rifles on the Ordnance Rifle pattern. The name is stamped on the trunnions.
South Boston Foundry: See Cyrus Alger & Co.
J. Sparrow: Proprietor of Portland Co. (q.v.).
T.F.: Tredegar Foundry (q.v.).
Totten: One of the co-owners of Fort Pitt Foundry (q.v.).
Daniel Treadwell: Produced a few weapons of his own design during the 1840s.
Tredegar Foundry: Major weapons manufacturer for U.S. and state governments 1848-61, and for the Confederacy during the war. Owned by Joseph Reid Anderson. Markings may be "J.R.A. & Co.," but more likely "T.F.," generally without Anderson's initials prior to the war and with them on Confederate pieces. the firm also was called Tredegar Iron Works, but Tredegar Foundry was by far the most commonly used name.
West Point Foundry: Cold Spring, N.Y., establishment operated by Robert Parker Parrott 1836-67. The company produced most types of iron ordnance until the war, then concentrated primarily on production of Parrott Rifles invented by the owner. Most canon are plainly marked with the foundry initials "W.P.F." and also the owner's "R.P.P."
West Point Foundry Arsenal: Initials of this facility have found on weapons and presumably, like Bellona Arsenal (q.v.) it served as a receiving and storage depot for government weapons made at West Point Foundry.
W.P.F.: West Point Foundry (q.v.)
W.P.F.A.: West Point Foundry Arsenal (q.v.)
Norman Wiard: Inventor of the Wiard Rifles, other weapons, carriage and ammunition. Rifles are usually marked "N.W." and "N.Y.C., O.F." thought to be initials of a New York City foundry. The New York Public Library has informed the author that Trow's Business Directory of the City of 1863-64 and 1865-66 lists but one iron founder with the initial "O" - John O'Donnell - and there is a possibility the mysterious "O.F." may stand for O'Donnell's Foundry.
Hinckley, Williams & Co.: Boston, Mass., firm produced cannon for the Navy during the war.
The following Confederate listing was compiled from the Official Records and other sources believed to be reliable. However, available information is scant and such factors as inclusive dates of service, location, and type duty often not recorded. Consequently, the names of many individuals who served in ordnance, but we may never have inspected cannon, are no doubt included while other, bona fide inspectors may have been overlooked.
All - Army, Navy, and manufacturers - have been listed together alphabetically and initials are recorded only where they differ from those normally to be expected from the name.
A.D.B.: See A. M deBree.
A.F.: See Augusta Foundry and Machine Works.
Alexander, John & Co.: - Columbia, S.C. The Charleston Mercury of March 27, 1862, stated that the churches of Sumter, South Carolina, turned in their bells, about 1500 pounds of metal, to be cast into howitzers by the above.
Joseph Reid Anderson: Owner of J. R. Anderson & Co. at Richmond, variously known as Tredegar Iron Works and Tredegar Foundry (q.v.). After a brief period of field service, he was brought back to Richmond and supervised the firm throughout the remainder of the war. See U.S. listing. Note: Initials on Confederate weapons are easily confused with J.L.A. (Junius L. Archer of Bellona Foundry).
R. Snowden Andrews: Major, artillery, apparently on ordnance duty at Richmond.
Dr. Junius L. Archer: Owner of Bellona Foundry. His initials are always coupled with those of the foundry and if indistinct may be confused with Joseph Reid Anderson of Tredegar Foundry.
"ARK. MIL INS.": Arkansas Military Institute - Two Confederate bronze 6-pounders captured January 1, 1864, were inscribed "ARK. MIL. INT." (Albaugh and Simmons, 197) It is known that two cadet 6-pounders were cast for the Arkansas Military Institute by Cyrus Alger of Boston in 1851, one of which survives at Petersburg.
Armstrong & Co.: New Orleans, LA. - Col. James Armstrong, proprietor. James Armstrong conducted a large establishment at the corner of Erato and New Levee Sts. which produced all types of machinery. Some projectiles were cast but there is no evidence that cannon were turned out. ("Citizens File") After the war Armstrong associated himself with Mr. John Roy and continued operations at the old location. (New Orleans Times, April 22, 1866)
Atlanta Machine Works: Atlanta, GA. - Also known as Gullet & Co. The facility was located on the Georgia Railroad opposite the Richmond & Danville freight depot. Between August and December, 1863, the firm delivered 2323 rounds of shot and shell to the Atlanta Arsenal. (Record of Receipts and Deliveries, Atlanta Arsenal, Chap. 4, Vol. 88, R.G. 109) At that time the facility had seventeen hands of military age in its employ. One source states that cannon were made at this plant and rifled at the roundhouse of the Western & Atlantic Railroad. (Stephen Mitchell, "Atlanta, the Industrial Heart of the Confederacy," The Atlanta Historical Bulletin (May, 1930, 23.) The Memphis Appeal of November 24, 1861, briefly noted that there was a cannon foundry in Atlanta receiving iron from Dalton, although a specific foundry was no mentioned.
Atlanta (GA.) Arsenal: Commanded by Col. Moses Hanibal Wright.
Atlanta Naval Ordnance Works: Commanded by Lt. D. P. McCorkle. Upon approach of the enemy, machinery was moved about June, 1864, to Augusta, GA. Made projectiles and ordnance stores primarily.
Augusta (GA.) Arsenal: Commanded by Col. George Washington Rains.
Augusta Foundry and Machine Works: Commanded by Col. George Washington Rains. Manufactured cannon, projectiles and had a very extensive powder works. Initial on cannon "A.F." (Augusta Foundry), often linked with those of Rains.
Briscoe G. Baldwin: Captain in Ordnance Department.
John G. Barnwell: Major, artillery, on duty with Ordnance Department as an inspector.
Baton Rouge (LA.) Arsenal: Closed due to approach of the enemy.
Bellona Arsenal: See U.S. listing. Wartime activities of this Richmond, VA., facility have not been determined. However, at least one weapon has been found stamped with the initials "B.A." and dated 1864.
Bellona Foundry: Chesterfield county, Virginia - During the war was a major supplier of cannon. Initials will be found linked to those of the owner, Dr. Junius L. Archer, and also Richard M. Cary, superintendent of Macon Arsenal, who seems to have inspected certain weapons at Bellona during periods of 1863-64.
Bennett & Surges: New Orleans firm. Made a few heavy iron cannon and bronze field pieces just prior to fall of the city in April 1862. From O.R. Series I, Volume 6, page 577-6.
"CHAP. XVI.] CAPTURE OF NEW ORLEANS. PAGE 577-6
T. M. Brennan: Nashville, TN., company which made iron cannon. T. M. Brennan of Claiborne Machine Works, Nashville, TN.
Briarfield Arsenal: Selma, AL., facility cast a few field weapons before being turned over to the Navy and becoming the Selma Naval Ordnance Works under Cmdr. Catesby ap Roger Jones.
John Mercer Brooke: Chief of the Office of Ordnance and Hydrography and inventor of the Brooke Rifle. He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy and served in the U.S. Navy until joining the Confederacy in 1861.
William Leroy Broun: Lieutenant colonel commanding the Richmond Arsenal.
Bujac & Bennett: New Orleans small arms maker who had installed machinery and started casting heavy weapons when the city fell in April, 1862.
James H. Burton: Arrived from England shortly before the war and worked at Tredegar Foundry. Later was lieutenant colonel in charge of the Macon Armory.
Byrac: New Orleans, LA. Contracted with the Navy Department for twenty 32-pounder rifles. (O.N.R., Series 1, XVII, 163) No evidence that any were cast.
Cameron & Company: Charleston, S.C. - Archibald Cameron, proprietor. Cameron & Company cast its first cannon, a large 12-pounder iron rifle, in May, 1861. Work was not completed until August and it was October before the weapon was delivered to the Charleston Arsenal. Shortly thereafter it was taken to Otter Island for testing where it quickly burst due to poor iron. (Charleston Mercury, May 18 and June 17, 1861; Albaugh and Simmons, 207; "Citizens File") A fire heavily gutted the plant in December, 1861, with damage estimated at $200,000. During the reconstruction interim a temporary foundry was established on King Street and the casting of shot and shell continued. (Charleston Courier, Dec. 31, 1861 and Jan. 6, 1862; Charleston Mercury, Jan. 28, 1862) Throughout the war the firm concentrated on the rifling of heavy cannon, the casting of artillery projectiles, and the construction of ship machinery. Few additional cannon were delivered. By March, 1863, two Cameron 6-pounder rifles had been sent to Savannah. (O.R., XIV, 690)
CHAP. XL. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.--CONFEDERATE. PAGE 199-47
Cameron & McDurmit: See Cameron, Taylor & Johnson.
Cameron, Taylor & Johnson: Charleston, S.C., firm which made a very limited number of wrought iron guns. Also known as Cameron & McDurmit, or Phoenix Iron Works.
Carkeet, J. H.: Natchez, Miss. Natchez Courier of December 11, 1861, reported that the "shop of Mr. J. H. Carkeet on Franklin Street is in progress of manufacturing a new 2-pounder gun invented and patented by him."
Charleston (S.C.) Arsenal: Commanded by Maj. J. T. Trezevant.
Charlotte (N.C.) Naval Ordnance Works: Commanded by Chief Engineer Ramsay. Manufactured carriages, projectiles, and other munitions for the Navy.
F. L. Childs: Major commanding Fayetteville Arsenal and Armory.
Churchill & Company: Natchez, Mississippi. The Baton Rouge Advocate of May 7, 1861, noted in part that "while strolling through this establishment a few days since, we noticed two of the Natchez brass pieces, one having undergone the process of repair, looking good as new, while the other was revolving in a lathe, taking the first course of a routine mechanical appliance that was to render it, like its companion, more efficient than in its palmiest days." In March, 1862, General Beauregard requested drawings for 6-pounder rifles and 12-pounder Napoleons for "the Natchez foundry." (O.R., pt. 2, 362) No evidence that any were cast. Shortly thereafter the firm was moved to Selma, Alabama, where it continued the production of artillery projectiles.
John Clarke: New Orleans manufacturer of a few bronze weapons.
H. P. Cochran: Lieutenant in the Ordnance Department.
Columbus (GA.) Arsenal: Confederate States Arsenal, Columbus, GA. Commanded by Maj. Frederick Clinton Humphreys.
Columbus Naval Iron Works: Technically Confederate States Naval Iron Works, Columbus, GA. This was the Columbus Iron Works Co., established in 1853 and taken over by the government during the war. It produced at least one weapon, a 2.75-inch breechloader. W. Riley Brown, proprietor.
Congaree Foundry: Columbia, S.C. Two cannon cast by the above are known to survive. No additional information.
Cushman's Foundry: Houston, Texas - The above produced a smoothbore breech loading cannon invented by George A. Clark. The weapon was loaded with buckshot and was light enough to be carried on a pack saddle for mountain service. (Albaugh and Simmons, 201)
Richard M. Cary: Commander Macon Arsenal. His initials "R.M.C." are also found on a few Bellona Foundry weapons and a Bellona Arsenal piece indicating that he may have inspected weapons at those facilities.
F. B. Deane Jr. & Son: Lynchburg, VA., firm which made shot, shell, and a number of light caliber weapons, probably iron 24-pounder siege and garrison howitzers. By August, 1861, the Confederate Government had contracted with Dean for forty 12-pounder howitzers. Company papers give no evidence that any were delivered. ("Citizens File") On August 16, 1862, a contract was signed with the Navy Department for 4000 tons for shot and shell. (O.N.R., Series 2, II, 244) Many thousands of projectiles were eventually delivered by the firm. ("Citizens file")
A. M. DeBree: Joined U.S. Navy 1841 and C. S. Navy Aug. 1862. Stationed at Tredegar as assistant inspector of ordnance 1862 to 1 Oct. 1863 when he became commander of the Richmond Naval Ordnance Works. He apparently used initials "A.D.B.," generally prefaced by "P" (Proved).
J. A. DeLagnel: Lieutenant colonel in Ordnance Department at Richmond and inspector of arsenals.
Charles Dimmock: West Pointer. Resigned U.S. Army 1836 to become civil engineer, and served in the Virginia militia. Became brigadier general in Confederate service in charge of Ordnance Department of Virginia. Died October, 1863.
W. S. Downer: Superintendent Richmond Armory and Clarksville Harness Shops.
J. M. Eason Bros.: Charleston firm operated by James M. and Thomas D.
Eason. James M. Eason, proprietor. Soon after the capture of
Fort Sumter the Eason firm prepared machinery and began rifling a
24-pounder smoothbore for the State of South Carolina. Subsequently,
a portable rifling machine was made which could rifle guns at various
distant locations. (The
Centennial of Incorporation (Charleston: The News and Courier Book
Press, 1884), 235.) The Charleston Mercury of July 20, 1861,
reported that "... it has been demonstrated that the Eason gun will
throw solid shot or shell, with accuracy, further than any other cannon
now in our possession." By September over twenty heavy guns
were at the shop awaiting rifling operations. (Columbus Times,
September 9, 1861) In November, 1862, Major Childs at the Charleston
Arsenal reported "That full three weeks have heretofore been taken by
Messrs. Eason & Bro. in rifling and banding 32-pounder and 42-pounder
guns; but that by working at night and on Sundays and distributing the
work between Eason and Cameron I hope to be able to finish one gun per
? Eggleston: Lieutenant in charge of Naval Ordnance Works, New Orleans, LA.
Ellis & Moore: Nashville, TN. - W. D. Ellis and C. C. Moore, proprietors. Engine and boiler making establishment located on South Market St. in Nashville. About sixty hands were employed. The Nashville Union and American of May 5, 1861, and the Nashville Patriot of May 29, 1861, stated that the above had cast two sample iron 6-pounders for private parties, one for Louisiana. On May 21, 1861, the State of Tennessee contracted with the firm for a battery of four 6-pounders and two 12-pounder howitzers (all iron) and shot and shell. A payment of $4000 was made at that time. (Military Board Record Book, pp. 21, 25) Company vouchers indicate that no guns were delivered for the Confederate Government. ("Citizens File") A 6-pounder weighing 1010 pounds was captured by federal at Fort Zollicoffer and marked: "ELLIS & CO. NASHVILLE." (Albaugh and Simmons, 217)
Etowah Works, GA.: Probably Etowah Iron Works. Operated by Quinby & Robinson (q.v.). Made shot and shell. Etowah Iron Works, Cartersville, GA., Mark A. Copper, proprietor. On April 21, 1861, the Confederate Government contracted with the above for both field pieces and 8 and 10-inch Columbiads, but Copper proved unable to fill the contract. (Vandiver, 62-63) It was reported that the plant employed 500 hands. (Albaugh and Simons, 213) The firm was later bought out by William Quinby and William Robinson, formerly of Memphis. There is no indication that any cannon were ever cast at the plant. The War Department at one time studied Cartersville as a possible site for a national cannon foundry, but Selma, Alabama, was later selected. The Columbus Daily Sun of May 26, 1864, reported that all the machinery and stores at the plant had been removed by rail and the 250 slaves by wagon train.
Archibald B. Fairfax: Navy inspector of ordnance. Rifled and banded a number of 32-pounders captured at Norfolk Navy Yard.
Fayetteville (N.C.) Arsenal & Armory: North Carolina facility commanded by Major F. L. Childs.
Georgia Railroad Machine Shop: Augusta, GA. - news article in the Columbus Daily Enquirer of August 31, 1861, announced that the mechanics at the above had built a "new styled cannon" called a Sumner Oscillating Breech Loading Rifled Gun. It was manufactured from the crank axle of a railroad engine. Other cannon were apparently made at the facility including some 2.25-inch breech loading rifles. (Beverly M. Dubose, III, "The Manufacture of Confederate Ordnance in Georgia," the Atlanta Historical Bulletin (1967), 19). There were two breech loading rifles made by the Georgia Railroad Machine shop and issued through the Atlanta Arsenal on January 28 and April 11. The January 14 issue states however: "Maker: Rushton, Georgia Railroad, Atlanta, GA." some 12-pounder Napoleons cast at the nearby Augusta Arsenal were finished at these shops.
John M. Gibbs: Transferred to Office of Ordnance and Hydrography in 1864.
Gilleland, John: Athens, GA. - Invented a double-barrel experimental smoothbore 4-pounder. The weapon, cast at his Athens foundry, proved a failure. The barrels did not discharge simultaneously and the projectile, two balls linked together by chain, parted and flew in an erratic manner. The weapon was never used beyond the test trial. It survives today at Athens.
Josiah Gorgas: (1818-1885). Chief of Confederate Ordnance Department with rank of brigadier general. See Inspectors, Army, for federal service.
Gossport Navy Yard: Norfolk, VA. - U.S. Navy Yard occupied by Virginia troops on April 21, 1861, at which time 1198 cannon were captured as follows: one 11-inch Columbiad, two 10-inch Columbiads, fifty-two 9-inch guns, seventy-nine 8-inch guns, four 64-pounders, 540 32-pounders, a boat and field howitzer (1200 pounds.), two boat and field howitzers (250 pounds.), 235 61 cwt. old style, fifty 70 cwt. old style, forty-four 40 cwt. Shobrick guns, sixty-three 42-pounders 27 cwt. carronades, thirty-five 32-pounders 32 cwt. carronades. ("Report of Ordnance and Ordnance Stores on Hand at the Gosport Navy yard on the 21st of April, 1861..." document No. 25, Documents of the Virginia House of Delegates, 1861-62 VSL). By July, 1861, 533 of these guns had been dispersed across the Confederacy as follows: 203-North Carolina, 52-Tennessee, 21-Louisiana, 40-South Carolina, and Georgia, and 217 in 21 batteries in Virginia. In November, 1861, a Northern informant reported that "... the utmost activity prevailed in every department, from the casting of huge Dahlgren guns to the preparation of small shot. (Philadelphia Inquirer, November 6, 1861) The probability is, however, that no guns were actually cast under Confederate control, the time being spent in the repair of old cannon.
HA???LESTEN: Memphis, TN. - Two Confederate 12-pounder siege guns survive at Fort Donelson. Markings on one are faded but the other, with the exception of three unreadable letters, reads: "MEMPHIS 1862 HA???LESTEN." The 1860 Memphis directory lists no facility by that name. It is possible that these are some of the 12-pounder siege guns cast by Quinby & Robinson and that "Ha???lesten" was merely an ordnance inspector's name.
James Harding: Captain at Charleston Arsenal. He is believed to have invented the various types of "Harding" projectiles used in the Charleston area.
Hempstead, Texas: As of June, 1861, a foundry at this location had cast an iron 6-pounder for Confederate troops. (Albaugh and Simmons, 256)
William James Hubard: (1807-1862). Artist, silhouettist, sculptor, and scientist. Became interested in making bronze casting of Houdon's marble statue of Washington and from 1853 to 1860 devoted most of his time and finances to this end. At the start of war, he converted his foundry near Richmond to production of bronze cannon and by fall, 1861, was furnishing weapons to state and Confederate governments. In addition, he began experiments with powder which resulted in his death the following February from accidental explosion of a shell. Hubard apparently made only the rough casting and his weapons were finished in the Richmond machine shops of Thomas Samson and James Pae. Bronze field pieces have been found marked with Hubard's initials coupled with the "S & P" of Samson and Pae and in rare instances with an additional, unidentified "W.F."
R. K. Hudgins: Captain in Ordnance Department.
Benjamin Huger: After failure in field commands, was made inspector of ordnance. See Inspectors, Army, for U.S. service.
Frederick Clinton Humphreys: Major commanding Columbus Arsenal.
Duncan N. Ingraham: Chief Confederate Naval Ordnance, Construction and Repair for a very brief period. Then commander naval forces in South Carolina waters. See Inspectors, Navy, for federal service.
Jackson, Mississippi: There are varied references that some weapons were cast in Jackson, although a specific foundry has never been mentioned. Some Hughes portable breech loading guns, originally made by Street, Hungerford & company of Memphis, were apparently made in Jackson under order of Governor Pettus, although the exact number and the specific facility are unknown.
Jones' Foundry: Shreveport, La. - Was under a Confederate contract for both cannon and projectiles. Some projectiles were eventually turned out but no guns.
Jones, McElwaine & Company: Holly Springs, MS. - founded in 859 and initially involved in the manufacture of iron grill work sold mainly in New Orleans. Some 200 hands were employed at the beginning of the war. The firm was primarily involved in the repair of small arms. A few sample bronze cannon were also made. McElwaine's widow later recalled how she used to assist in pouring out the ladles of metal into the mold.
Catesby ap Roger Jones: Commander Naval Ordnance Works at Selma, AL., a major producer of Brooke Rifles. His initials "C. ap. R. J." often found on these weapons. See Inspectors, Navy, for federal service.
Beverly Kennon: Commander Naval Ordnance Works at New Orleans prior to Lt. Eggleston.
John Knepps: Believed to have been a civilian inspector at Macon Arsenal.
Elliott Lacey: Civilian inspector of ordnance at Tredegar Foundry.
Leeds & Co.: New Orleans firm which apparently made a single 8-inch Columbiad, which burst, and from then on produced bronze field calibers until fall of the city in April, 1862. Charles J. and Thomas L. Leeds, proprietors. Several 3.3-inch caliber bronze cannon were manufactured. One example is located in the Museum of the Confederacy in Richmond, Virginia. From O.R. Series I, Volume 6, Serial No. 6, page 621-6.
"...Question. Were any heavy guns made at Leeds & Co.'s establishment
Little Rock, Arkansas Arsenal: Closed by approach of the enemy.
Livermore Foundry & Machine Works: Memphis, TN. - Reported to have made some cannon for the Confederate States until Memphis fell and thereafter made cannon for the U.S. (Albaugh and Simmons, 240)
James G. McCluskey: Stationed at Richmond Naval Ordnance Works.
A. W. McConnell: Believed to be inspector with Quinby & Robinson at Memphis, TN.
D. P. McCorkle: Lieutenant in command of Naval Ordnance Works at Atlanta. Joined U.S. Navy in 1841 and Confederate Navy June, 1861.
Charles A. McEvoy: Stationed at Richmond in Office of Ordnance and Hydrography.
Macon (GA) Armory: Commanded by Lt. Col. James H. Burton.
Macon Arsenal: Commanded by Col. Richard M. Cary (q.v.). Made both bronze and iron weapons including a few 8-inch Columbiads. Initials "M.A." generally coupled with "R.M.C."
Miller, A. N.: Savannah, GA. - when Northern public sentiment caused the Fort Pitt Foundry of Pittsburgh to decline delivery of contracted cannon to Georgia in 1860, the State not only contracted with the Tredegar Iron Works but also turned to her own resources. In December, 1860, the A.N. Miller foundry made a proposal to furnish six 32-pounder seacoast guns "of the most modern pattern United States standard..." The proposal was later changed to 24-pounders but to no avail, since the firm proved unable to deliver heavy caliber guns at that time. (Miller to Brown, Dec. 12 and Dec. 21, 1860, Georgia State Archives) further effort at encouraging heavy cannon production, including a $10,000 State contract, proved fruitless. (O.R., Series 4, I, 169-170) The State later contracted with Miller for a battery of 24-pounder howitzers. The first weapon, made of iron and weighing 1700 pounds, was delivered in May 1861. At that time the firm had an order from South Carolina for 6000 rounds of shot and shell and a standing order for an unlimited quantity of the same for Georgia. (Albaugh and Simmons, 246) By December, 1861, the firm was engaged in "the casting of guns and mortars of large caliber and superior workmanship." A 32-pounder was taken from the shop on December 8th and mounted in the Savannah defenses. (Columbus Daily Times, December 9, 1861) Additional production was limited to one 15-inch and three 10-inch seacoast mortars, all cast in 1862 and placed in the Savannah defenses. Some old heavy guns were also rifled and banded. ("Citizens File"; O.R., XIV, 874)
George Minor: Commander in Charge, Office of Ordnance and Hydrography.
John C. Minor: Stationed at Richmond, Office of Ordnance and Hydrography.
Robert D. Minor: Lieutenant commanding Richmond Naval Ordnance Works until 1 Oct. 1863.
Montgomery (AL) Arsenal: Commanded by Maj. C. G. Wagner.
Mount Vernon Arsenal: Mount Vernon, AL.
William H. Murdaugh: Ordnance duty at Norfolk Navy Yard.
Nashville (TN) Arsenal: Closed by approach of the enemy.
Noble Bros. & Co.: Rome, GA., foundry cast bronze and iron field calibers. James Noble, Sr., proprietor.
Palmetto Iron Works: Columbia, S.C. - Founded in 1850 by William
Glaze, a Columbia silversmith and jeweler, was located at the corner of Laurel and Lincoln Streets.
Also called the Palmetto Armory. Prior to the war the firm received
a contract in 1851 to make weapons for South Carolina. By 1853 it had
delivered: 6,020 Model 1842 muskets with bayonets, 1,000 Model 1841
Mississippi rifles, 1,000 Model 1842 dragoon pistols, 2,000 Model 1840
cavalry sabers with scabbards, and 576 Model 1840 light artillery sabers. During the war several revolving
cannon were made. The weapons were invented by a man named
"George" and they worked on the order of Colt's revolvers.
The guns were never adopted by the Government. (Albaugh and Simmons,
252). In addition, smaller firms like Kraft, Goldschmidt, and Kraft,
and B. Douglas and Company produced a few edged weapons for Confederate
troops. In February 1865 the Palmetto Armory was partially destroyed
by Union troops. The armory didn't manufacture any other weapons
except for a few cannons, 275 saber bayonets, and 1,000 10-inch shells
produced in 1861, the armory did not make any other weapons. From
1854 until it was sold in 1868, the firm was called the Palmetto Iron
Paxton, A. M. & Company: Vicksburg, MS. - The above firm did finishing work on some of the field guns cast by Quinby & Robinson and A. B. Reading & Brother. There is no evidence that the firm actually cast guns of its own.
Petersburg Iron Works: Produced shot and shell with at least one 7-inch caliber Brooke milled-base bolt projectile recovered from the James River, VA, is stamped with the initials "P.I.W."
Phoenix Iron Works: See Cameron, Taylor & Johnson. - Gretna (New Orleans), LA./ Sylvester Bennett, proprietor. News item dated May 5, 1861, noted that the above had cast a heavy gun eight feet in length. The New Orleans Picayune of September 4, 1861, noted that several 18-pounder cannon had been turned out at the firm.
Quinby & Robinson: Memphis, TN., firm made bronze field calibers. Also listed as owners of Etowah Works, GA. (q.v.). William T. Quinby and William A. Robinson, proprietors.
George Washington Rains: Colonel commanding Augusta Arsenal, Augusta Powder Mills, and Augusta Foundry and Machine Works (q.v.). Initials "G.W.R." are generally coupled with "A.F." (Augusta Foundry).
[?] Ramsay: Chief Engineer in charge of Naval Ordnance Works, Charlotte, N.C.
A.B. Rand Bros.: Vicksburg, Miss., firm manufactured field calibers. Weapons usually stamped "A.B.R.Bro. V.Burg. Miss."
Reading, A. B. & Brother: Vicksburg, Miss. - Abram B. Reading, proprietor.
Thomas S. Rhett: Colonel in Ordnance Department and inspector of ordnance.
Rice & Wright: Florence, AL., company reported to have made a number of 24-pounder howitzers, probably iron, siege and garrison models.
Richmond (VA.) Armory: Supervised by W. S. Downer.
Richmond Arsenal: Commanded by Lt. Col. William LeRoy Broun.
Stacked and scattered
ammunition in the arsenal at Richmond, Virginia.
Richmond Naval Ordnance Works: Richmond, VA. - Commanded at various times by Lt. J. M. Brooke, Lt. R. D. Minor, Lt. A. M. deBree, and R. B. Wright. Initials "R.N.O.W." have been found on projectiles. The above facility rifled, banded, and bored some of the heavy guns cast at the nearby Tredegar Iron Works after that firm was struck by fire in May, 1863. (O.N.R. Series 2, II, 548, 641, 757) There is a surviving Tredegar 6.4-inch Brooke rifle at the Washington Navy Yard marked "RNOW" (Richmond Naval Ordnance Works), indicating that work was performed on the gun at the facility. Also inscribed on this and several other surviving guns are the initials "A.D.B.", which stands for Lieutenant A. M. deBee who was commander of the works as of October, 1863. By February, 1865, the Richmond Naval Ordnance Works employed 115 whites and forty-two Negroes. (Misc. Letters, Ordnance and Hydrography Department, National Archives Record Group 45) Thomas Samson and James Pae, proprietors. This Richmond machines shop did finishing work on the howitzers cast by the Washington Foundry of Richmond. The firm also made some weapons of its own. On April 23, 1862, a wrought iron cannon (caliber unspecified) was delivered to the Confederate Government. On January 16, 1863, four Williams breech loading guns were delivered at $900 apiece. The facility was also a large supplier of artillery projectiles. ("Citizens File")
S.: See Selma Naval Ordnance Works.
Salisbury (N.C.) Arsenal: Received this name 29 August 1864. Previously known as the Government Foundry, Blacksmith Shops and Laboratory at Salisbury, or "Salisbury Foundry." Made projectiles. Commanded by Capt. Addison G. Brenizer.
Samson & Pae: Richmond machine shop which finished weapons cast by William James Hubard (q.v.). James Valence Pae was born on 27 Dec 1793 and baptized on 13 Jan 1793 in Coldingham, Berwick, Scotland. He died sometime before 1870, presumably in Richmond, Henrico County, VA, as he does not appear in the census for that year. He was an iron merchant, who created a foundry in Richmond under the name of "Sampson & Pae" that was destroyed by the Union troops during the Civil War.
Selma (AL.) Arsenal: Commanded by Lt. Col. J. L. White.
Selma Naval Gun Foundry: Selma, AL. - Catesby ap R. Jones, commanding.
Selma Naval Ordnance Works: Commanded by Cmdr. Catesby ap Roger Jones and one of the most important foundries in the Confederacy. Produced Brooke Rifles for the Navy although many wound up in Army service. Variously called "Selma Foundry," "Selma Cannon Foundry," and "Naval Gun Foundry and Ordnance Works, Selma, Ala." Initial usually found on weapons, however, is "S" followed by the gun number in most cases. Both are much smaller than traditional marks (quarter-inch or so) and very difficult to spot.
T. A. Sengstack: Believed to have been an ordnance inspector at Macon Arsenal.
Shacklock & Company: Memphis, TN. - A cannon sight base survives which is marked "Shacklock & Co., Memphis, Tenn." According to the 1860 Memphis Directory W. D. Shacklock was a Memphis jeweler. During the war Shacklock turned his skills to the manufacture of fine artillery implements and the sighting of cannon. The Shacklock firm sighted scores of cannon at Columbus, Kentucky, and at fortifications along the Mississippi River. Records indicate that the firm actually cast no cannon of its own. ("Citizens File")
[?] Simms: Lieutenant listed as assistant to Catesby ap Roger Jones at Selma Naval Ordnance Works.
Skates & Co.: Mobile, Ala., firm which rifled a number of
heavy pieces and produced field calibers. Skates & Company, also
known as the Mobile Foundry, was located at the corner of Magnolia and
State Streets. Prior to the war the firm manufactured steam engines,
boilers, gin gearings, and iron machinery. during the war the Skates
firm engaged primarily in rifling and banding of heavy guns and the
casting of artillery projectiles. (Memphis Appeal, September 28,
1861; "Citizens File") In September, 1861, a contract was
signed with the firm for four field batteries complete with harness.
(O.R., VI. 726, 729) "...These guns should unquestionably be reinforced
with wrought-iron bands, so as to make up one an inch and a half thick and
8 or 10 inches wide. The gun should be perfectly clean, and the band be
shrunk on at a light heat. The preponderance of the breech does no great
harm. The shells ought not to be longer than two calibers probably, nor to
weigh more than 40 or 45 pounds. The charge of powder will not exceed 5
pounds. I will send to Messrs. Skates a sketch showing the mode of rifling
adopted here and the form of the shell most approved. There are many
varieties. The heavy guns bored with small calibers carry heavier shot and
higher charges. There are some old guns lying at Forts Morgan and Gaines.
You are authorized to have them rebored, and to build carriages for them
if found fit for service, such a firing round or grape shot for the
defense of redoubts or of the city.
E. [?] Smith: Major in Ordnance Department at Richmond.
Stansbury Smith: Artillery captain on duty with Ordnance Department. See Inspectors, Army, for U.S. service.
State Military Works: Greenville, S.C. - The State Military Works was put in operation in late 1862 and by early 1863 employed 75 hands in the manufacture of breech loading small arms. the manufacture of cannon and gun carriages was also contemplated at that time. A specimen of iron ore from Kings Mountain was sent to Richmond to ascertain its strength for ordnance use. The ore was reported to have been cast into a cannon. (Albaugh and Simmons, 265) The Tredegar Iron Works did cast a 24-pounder rifle and a 12-pounder howitzer from South Carolina iron on April 21, 1862, but whether or not this was the same gun cannot be certain. The railroad bridges between Greenville and Columbia were strengthened to permit the passage of trains with cannon. Whether or not any cannon were eventually cast in Greenville is unknown.
Street, Hungerford & Company: Memphis, TN. - Anthony S. Street and Fayette H. Hungerford, proprietors.
E. T.: Unidentified ordnance inspector at Macon arsenal.
Tappey and Lumsden: Petersburg, VA., firm. Producer of revolving cannon designed by Henry Clay Pate (q.v.). The Petersburg Express of May 11, 1861, noted that Tappey & Lumsden had completed a five-shot cannon of 3.13-inch caliber weighing 300 pounds. It fired a four pound ball 1900 yards. A pair of these weapons was turned out. One burst during firing tests and the other was set aside for the duration of the war. It survives today at Petersburg, VA. The firm later turned out battery equipment. Between October, 1861, and July, 1863, deliveries were made of fifty-two gun carriages twenty-nine field and twenty-three heavy), thirty-two caissons, and one battery wagon. ("Citizens File")
Texas Arsenal: San Antonio, Texas. Closed due to encroachment of the enemy.
Tredegar Foundry/Iron Works: Richmond, VA. - Foremost cannon manufacturer in the South. Also known as J. R. Anderson & Co. or Tredegar Iron Works. initials "T.F." or "J.R.A. & Co." See Manufacturers, U.S.
J. T. Trezevant: Major in command of the Charleston Arsenal.
N. H. Van Zant: Lieutenant at Selma Naval Ordnance Works and later supervised manufacture of carriages, projectiles and other material at Charleston.
C. G. Wagner: Major commanding Montgomery Arsenal.
Washington Foundry: Richmond, VA. - William J. Hubard, proprietor.
Webster, Thomas & Company: Chattanooga, Tennessee - The State of Tennessee contracted with the above on June 17, 1861, for a battery of four 6-pounder and two 12-pounder howitzers with carriages, caissons, shot and shell. At that time the firm was advanced $4000. (Military Board Record Book, pp. 39, 45) A report to the Tennessee General Assembly made October 1, 1861, stated that "cannon enough have been cast, both iron and bronze, to supply the whole Provisional Army of Tennessee for the present. This has been done principally in Nashville and Memphis, and to some extent in Chattanooga..." (O.R., LII, pt. 2, 162-163)
J. L. White: Lieutenant Colonel commanding Selma Arsenal.
Whitfield, Bradley & Company: Clarksville, TN. - Besides doing finishing work on some guns cast by the T. M. Brennan foundry, there is evidence that Whitfield, Bradley & Co., cast at least four guns (two iron 6-pounders and two bronze 9-pounders) of its own. The weapons served with Tilghman at Hopkinsville, Kentucky, and later at Fort Donelson. Tilghman described the guns as "pretty fair" but another officer remarked "...There was in the fort one large howitzer (a good one) and two small 9 or 12 pounders, made in Clarksville, of very little account..." (O.R., IV, 464, 514; VII, 388, 394)
S. Wolfe & Co.: New Orleans firm which at the surrender in April, 1862, had manufactured two mortars and was making other heavy weapons. Samuel Wolff, proprietor.
Moses Hanibal Wright: Ordnance officer at Nashville, TN. Assigned as colonel commanding Atlanta Arsenal in July, 1863.
R. B. Wright: Civilian superintendent of Richmond Naval Ordnance Works during temporary absence of Lt. R. D. Minor about November, 1864.
Wright and Rice: Florence, AL. - By August, 1861, the Confederate Government had undertaken a contract with Wright & Rice for forty 24-pounder siege howitzers with carriages and caissons. (Lee, 167-168) On November 4, 1861, John B. Read wrote Brigadier General Withers at this Mobile headquarters concerning the firm. He wrote in part: "Mr. Wright, the ranking shop partner, is very skillful in his line. The firm will take contracts for guns of any size for [which] they want at the average rate paid for such work by the government. They use a blast furnace; but so does the foundry at Huntsville from which Col. Gorgas has ordered a number of guns for Richmond. They use Mr. Kirkman's iron from [the] Cumberland river, and Mr. Wright has great confidence in it... They have patterns now ready for casting eight inch Siege Howitzers if you should want any of that size. They have also drawings for 24-pdr. Siege Howitzers sent them by col. Gorgas. They have no seasoned timber for gun carriages. None of the desired metals are to be had in Florence." ("Citizens File") The firm did complete a breech loading cannon which was reported to fire ten times a minute. (Albaugh and Simmons, 277) There is no evidence that any additional weapons were produced.
Young, J. R. & Company: Huntsville, AL. - J. R. Young, proprietor.
Zarriman & Hilzen: Athens, TN. - The above firm declined a May 22, 1861, proposal from the State of Tennessee to cast cannon. (Military board Record Book, 22)
For more Confederate Manufactures click here.
British ordnance marking is an extensive field and no pretence is made here to comprehensive coverage. The few manufacturers and devices which follow include only those commonly found on weapons used in this country and known or suspected producers of ordnance supplies imported during the war.
Sir W. G. Armstrong & Co.: Founded in January 25, 1859 by Sir William George Armstrong as Elswick Ordnance Co., Newcastle-on-Tyne, to manufacture Armstrong pattern guns and projectiles for the British government when it adopted the Armstrong system of rifled ordnance. With rearmament complete and withdrawal of government support in 1862, Elswick was merged with other interests into Sir W. G. Armstrong & Co. Since the British government jealously guarded its ordnance, probably no Armstrongs' bearing the Elswick brand were imported, and those found in America will be marked on the trunnions "Sir W. G. Armstrong & Co." The markings, "EOC" in overlapping letters is identified as being the initials of the Elswick Ordnance Company.
Blakely Ordnance Co.: London firm which manufactured Blakely Rifles, presumably late in the war.
[ -> ] THE BROAD ARROW: This device generally is found on the upper surface near the breech of all cannon made for the British government and even projectiles, such as solid shot recovered from battle sites of the Revolutionary War and War of 1812.
John Brown & Co.: Sheffield firm asked by the Confederacy for prices on 8-inch smoothbores, carriages and ammunition and may have supplied any or all of these items.
William Butcher Jr. & Co.: Sheffield firm asked for prices on 8-inch smoothbores, carriages, and ammunition and may have furnished any or all of these items.
Elswick Ordnance Co.: See Sir W. G. Armstrong Co.
Fawcett, Preston & Co.: Liverpool firm manufactured Blakely Rifles. Generally found stamped on top of the tube about midway between breech and trunnions.
George Forrester & Co.: Liverpool company which made Blakely Rifles. "Forrester & Co." is found stamped on trunnions.
G. R.: Georgius Rex Monograms of George II (1727-1760) and George III (1760-1820). In each case the device, in raised metal, was cast atop the tube generally on first or second reinforce. It consists of an intertwined "G.R." in script with a crown above. Generally there is an Arabic "2" or "3" intertwined with the top left loop of the "G." In bronze weapons the device of George III is enclosed in a circular "Garter" bearing the motto of the order "Honi Soit Qui Mal Y Pense" (shamed be he who thinks evil of it).
T. & C. Hood: Apparently made cannon and projectiles for the Confederacy.
Low Moor: Produced rifles for Blakely. Name is stamped in this fashion on trunnions although full name seems to have been Low Moor Iron Co.
Manchester Ordnance & Rifle Co.: See Whitworth Ordnance Co.
Mersey Steel & Iron Co.: Liverpool firm asked by Confederacy for prices on 8-inch smoothbores, carriages, and ammunition and may have supplied any or all of these items.
Tudor Rose: Outline of rose, surmounted by a crown, raised on tubes of early 18th Century British weapons.
Vavasseur: This name, coupled with "1862, London" has been found on Blakely Type 11 rifles. This may be Joseph Vavasseur (1834-1908) who at one period connected with the Armstrong-Whitworth Co., although no direct link with Blakely has been found.
Whitworth Ordnance Co.: Manufacturer of rifles invented by Sir Joseph Whitworth. Based on trunnion marks, the firm changed names during the war for an 1861 specimen is stamped "Whitworth Ordnance Co., Manchester" and another piece, dated 1864, is marked "Manchester Ordnance & Rifle Co."